10 April 2006
In this issue:
In the News: R2P Used as Advocacy Tool
1. Agence France Presse: WORLD IS FAILING DARFUR: UN HUMANITARIAN CHIEF
2. The Monitor (Kampala): UGANDA: HOW MANY MORE PEOPLE HAVE TO DIE TO GET NOTICED?
3. Senator Hillary Clinton Press Release: Open Letter to President Bush calling for action on Darfur
The Crisis in Darfur
4. The Washington Post: NATO ROLE IN DARFUR ON TABLE: U.S. BACKS MOVE TO SEND ADVISERS
5. The United Nations News Centre: ANNAN TO SPEAK TO SUDANS PRESIDENT OVER BAN ON UN RELIEF CHIEFS TRIP TO DARFUR
6. The United Nations News Centre: ANNAN CALLS FOR REDEPLOYMENT OF SOME PEACEKEEPERS FROM BURUNDI TO DR CONGO
7. The Toronto Star: UN TO TARGET EGLECTED UGANDA CRISIS
8. The Washington Post: RWANDANS MARK 12-YEAR ANNIVERSARY OF THE BEGINNING OF THE GENOCIDE
9. BBC News International: SADDAM TO FACE GENOCIDE CHARGES
1. WORLD IS FAILING DARFUR: UN HUMANITARIAN CHIEF
AGENCE FRANCE PRESSE
April 7, 2006
The international community is failing in its responsibility to protect millions of people in Sudan's troubled western Darfur region, UN emergency relief coordinator Jan Egeland said Friday.
Speaking just days after Khartoum refused to allow him to visit Darfur and denied him overflight rights to see refugees housed in camps in neighboring Chad, Egeland said the world was abandoning a people in desperate need.
"The world is failing Darfur on two fronts," he told reporters at a news conference in the Kenyan capital where he launched a UN appeal for hundreds of millions of dollars to help drought afflicted east Africa.
"The world is not providing sufficient pressure on the political parties to make a peaceful solution to this and the world is not providing security," said Egeland ()
"I am very much concerned with the situation in Darfur," he said. "The next few months will be critical in the internationally backed attempts to provide security for a civilian population that has no security."
Egeland said relief agencies, including UN organizations, had sufficient supplies for those in need in Darfur but that humanitarian relief was useless if the intended recipients were dead or inaccessible due to insecurity.
"We have enough to keep people alive, but we can't at all change their totally inhuman kind of situation in camps where they cannot live without being attacked,"
"We have no security for our work, we have witnessed massive attacks against civilian population, we have a local government throwing out humanitarian workers as we speak and we have little funding this year," he said.
Full Text: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/ABES-6NMKLA?OpenDocument
2. UGANDA: HOW MANY MORE PEOPLE HAVE TO DIE TO GET NOTICED?
THE MONITOR (KAMPALA)
April 7, 2006
By Adrian Bradbury & Peter Quaranto
A study earlier this year by the Ugandan Ministry of Health and the United Nations estimates that over 1,000 people are dying every week from violence or disease in the camps. Yet, that's just the beginning. The IDP camps are over-crowded, lacking health services and amenities, and are protected only inconsistently. If we learned one thing from our trip, it is that the camps are a horrifically inadequate protection strategy.
Most parts in the north are not as insecure as portrayed. The problem is shrinking," claims President Yoweri Museveni. "Gulu has largely been free from terrorist activities. To declare the region a disaster area, what are you trying to achieve?" he asks. The Donor countries and the Security Council seem to accept this with little reservation.
So, we have one question: how many people have to die before the war in the north is treated as a priority for both the government of Uganda and the international community? ()
Is there a number that will ring the alarm bells? If not, what exactly are we waiting for?
The question is ridiculous. More compelling though, is the answer.
At the World Summit in 2005, member countries of the United Nations unanimously endorsed the 'responsibility to protect' ()
If the 'responsibility to protect' means anything anywhere, it ought to mean something in northern Uganda.
Activity by the LRA in Uganda is indeed down and protection may be improving, but the mortality rates in the camps continue. Over 1,000 people a week are dying because of inhumane conditions in the camps. That is not successful protection.
We're not pointing fingers; we're all responsible, and that's why we have to act.
Full Text: http://allafrica.com/stories/200604060843.html
3. THE OFFICE OF SEN. HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON, D-N.Y., ISSUED THE FOLLOWING PRESS RELEASE:
Deeply concerned by the continuing genocide in Darfur, Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton has sent a letter to President Bush, urging him to take steps to protect civilians and address the crisis in Darfur. Sen. Clinton's letter emphasized her concern regarding continued violence against civilians and aid workers in Darfur, recent accounts of sexual violence against children, and escalating tensions between Sudan and Chad. Her letter reiterated the importance of a durable peace agreement between the conflicting parties, but emphasized that peace talks should not forestall efforts to ensure the safety of the people of Darfur.
Earlier this month, Senator Clinton co-sponsored a resolution that passed the Senate, which called on President Bush to arrange for increased NATO assistance in Darfur. In January, Senator Clinton joined a bipartisan group of Senators in sending a letter to President Bush calling his attention to the crisis in Darfur.
The full text of Senator Clinton's letter to President Bush follows:
The Honorable George W. Bush
The White House
Washington, D.C. 20500
Dear Mr. President:
I write with great concern about the crisis in Sudan. Despite the work of the African Union, violence against civilians and aid workers in Darfur is increasing and spilling across the border into Chad. Between 200,000 and 400,000 people have been killed, and United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan and other credible experts continue to warn that three million civilians are displaced and at risk in Darfur and in eastern Chad. The situation in eastern Sudan is also of concern.
The United States and United Nations (U.N.) now possess extensive, official accounts of the violence and, through a U.N. Panel of Experts and other sources, we also know who may be responsible. The Government of Sudan - reported by the U.S. State Department on March 8, 2006 to be responsible for the genocide in Darfur - continues to deny the existence of a crisis. It continues to threaten retaliation against an international intervention, and, according to a U.N. report dated January 30, 2006, it continues to introduce additional military aircraft into Darfur. The United States can and must do more. Below are 13 ways in which you can take action.
Convene a meeting of world leaders to address the crisis in Darfur. For 100 weeks, the international community has watched, with little meaningful response, as the first genocide of this millennium has been carried out by the Government of Sudan against the people of Darfur. I urge you to convene, without delay, a meeting between leaders of the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the African Union, and other interested world leaders, to map out an action-plan for Darfur. The millions of displaced victims in Darfur deserve at least this much.
Appoint a Presidential Envoy to Sudan. To promote lasting peace in both Darfur and eastern Sudan, and to demonstrate U.S. commitment to peace negotiations and agreements, I urge you to consider the appointment of a Presidential Envoy to Sudan. Like Senator Danforth, your previous Envoy to Sudan, a new Envoy should participate personally in peace talks, oversee and coordinate U.S. engagement in Sudan, and report directly to you on these efforts.
Lead the U.N. Security Council in authorizing a peacekeeping mission in Darfur. To protect civilians from continued violence - much of which is documented explicitly in a 42-page U.N. report published on January 27 and the U.N. Secretary-General's monthly reports to the Security Council - I urge you to push the U.N. Security Council to authorize, under Chapter VII, a U.N. peacekeeping mission in Darfur.
On January 12 and March 10, 2006, the African Union endorsed this mission in principle. U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan has begun planning this mission, in accordance with the U.N. Security Council's Presidential Statement of February 3, 2006.
Efforts to broker a peace agreement for Darfur must not forestall efforts to protect civilians. Our continued inaction will enable the killings to continue. This fact cannot be ignored.
A U.N. mission in Darfur must now be authorized with a clear and robust mandate to protect civilians; and be supplied with the troops, air- and ground-mobility, and communications network required to fully implement that mandate.
The Government of Sudan must either cooperate with this mission or face sanctions, in accordance with the existing U.N. Security Council Resolutions that are described below.
Support the African Union. According to U.N. officials, deployment of U.N. peacekeepers to Darfur may take six to nine months. To protect civilians in the interim, I urge you to support the African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur in two ways. First, I urge you to support the funding needs of the African Union mission for the next nine months. As you know, the United States' share of these costs is estimated at $10 million per month.
Second, in accordance with United States Senate Resolution 383, which I co-sponsored, I urge you to lead NATO in providing assistance to the A.U. peacekeepers in Darfur, particularly in the areas of command and control, logistics, intelligence, and airlift. I called for NATO assistance in Darfur more than 12 months ago, at the Munich Conference on Security. Since then, NATO has been helpful, particularly with airlift, but it can and should do more.
Third, to improve the ability of the existing African Union peacekeepers to deter violence, I urge you to explore mechanisms that would provide African Union commanders in Darfur with specific, timely, standardized information about imminent attacks against civilians in Darfur.
Enforce the no-fly zone that has been established by the U.N. Security Council and endorsed by the U.S. Congress. Despite the enactment of a no-fly zone by the U.N. Security Council in March 2005 - nearly one year ago - the Government of Sudan continues its aerial assaults against civilians in Darfur. This is unacceptable, and I urge you to work with members of NATO, the U.N. Security Council, and the African Union to immediately enforce the ban on offensive overhead flights in Darfur that was established by Security Council Resolution 1591.
On March 2, 2006, the U.S. Senate adopted Resolution 383 calling on you to take steps to enforce the no-fly zone in Darfur. Senator Biden and others have suggested that enforcement of the flight ban would require no more than 12 to 18 fighter planes and a handful of AWACs. I urge you to work other countries to mobilize these resources, and to ensure that the Government of Sudan ceases its overhead assaults. Our continued failure on this issue is unacceptable.
Similarly, I urge you to raise with Khartoum the findings of a U.N. report dated January 30, 2006, which suggest that the Government of Sudan continues to introduce additional offensive military aircraft into Darfur.
Lead the U.N. Security Council in enforcing Resolution 1591, to freeze the assets and travel of certain dangerous individuals. I urge you to work with other members of the U.N. Security Council to fully implement Resolution 1591, which authorized the Security Council to impose travel bans and asset freezes on any individuals believed by a Panel of Experts to constitute a threat to stability, to violate international human rights law, to impede the peace process, or to conduct offensive overhead military flights.
The Panel of Experts has identified several individuals who have perpetrated such violations of international law, and these individuals must be prevented from organizing or perpetrating additional violence, and be sanctioned in full accordance with Resolution 1591. At the very least, the Security Council should call the named individuals to the United Nations for dialogue and questioning.
Lead the U.N. Security Council in enforcing Resolution 1564, to hold accountable the Government of Sudan for its documented failure to meet its international obligations to end violence and protect civilians in Darfur. I urge you to work with the U.N. Security Council to fully implement Resolution 1564, which calls on the Security Council to consider "additional measures as contemplated in Article 41 of the Charter of the United Nations, such as actions to affect Sudan's petroleum sector and the Government of Sudan or individual members of the Government of Sudan," if the Government of Sudan fails its previous obligations under international law, including U.N. Security Council Resolution 1556 and the Joint Communiqu dated July 3, 2004.
Several official reports, including a U.N. report published on January 27, 2006, demonstrate unequivocally that the Government of Sudan has failed its obligations. It has failed to protect civilians in Darfur, and it has failed to punish members of the military and the Janjaweed for violations of international human rights law. These realities and Resolution 1564 should now compel the Security Council to consider Article 41 measures against the Government of Sudan.
Ensure that the U.N. Security Council listens to the experts. I urge you to convene a briefing for members of the Security Council by experts who can describe the situation in Darfur, eastern Chad, and eastern Sudan. The Security Council should hear testimony from Juan Mendez, Special Advisor to the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide. As you know, the Security Council did not allow Mr. Mendez to present his observations in October 2005.
Stop the violence from spreading into Chad. I urge you to monitor tensions along the Chad-Sudan border and to focus the U.N. Security Council on this important issue. The U.N. Secretary-General noted in his January 30 report to the Security Council that "there has been a worrying build-up of armed forces of the two States and local militias on both sides of the border," and that "it is vitally important that the situation in the border areas of Chad and the conflicts in the Sudan do not combine to propel the two countries and the whole region towards confrontation and conflict."
More specifically, I urge you to work with the Security Council and the African Union to monitor implementation of the February 8, 2006 accord between the Presidents of Chad and Sudan, and to deter all parties from escalating the conflict. The safety of at least three million civilians along the Chad-Sudan border depends on your attention to this issue.
Call publicly for better behavior from Khartoum. Using Resolutions 1591 and 1564 and other points of leverage, I urge you to call on the Government of Sudan - particularly the National Congress Party in Khartoum - to immediately desist from violence against civilians; protect safe passage for aid workers; cooperate fully with international peacekeepers; engage constructively in the peace talks in Abuja; diffuse tensions along the Chad-Sudan border; and disarm and punish the Janjaweed and other groups responsible for genocidal violence in Darfur.
I urge you to call similarly on the Government of Sudan to implement the Comprehensive Peace Agreement without delay and in full consultation with the Government of Southern Sudan, and to protect civilians and peacefully address the situation in eastern Sudan.
Work with the U.N. Security Council to address attacks by rebel groups in Darfur. I urge you to work with the Security Council to make it clear to all rebels and perpetrators of violence in Sudan and Chad that attacks against civilians and aid workers are violations of international law; and that continued international consideration of their grievances depends directly upon their immediate cessation of violence against civilians.
Plan for reconstruction in Darfur. Through a new Presidential Envoy or other U.S. officials, I urge you to begin working with the World Bank and other stakeholders on a Joint Assessment Mission to plan for reconstruction in Darfur. This may help to accelerate the peace process by demonstrating to the Darfur rebels and the Government of Sudan that peace can bring financial dividends, and, once peace has been established, it will help to speed reconstruction and promote stability.
Support reconstruction in southern Sudan. I urge you to provide strong, material support to the Government of Southern Sudan as it builds a stable state, economy, and society in the wake of decades of conflict. Similarly, I urge you to encourage the Government of Southern Sudan to engage constructively in the Darfur peace negotiations.
During the last century, in Nazi Europe, Cambodia, and elsewhere, the international community failed to protect millions of innocent people from genocide and horrific crimes. We look back and wonder how the world allowed those killings to continue. We must find a way to protect civilians in Darfur, without further delay.
As you know, I and other members of the U.S. Congress recognized the genocide in Darfur in July 2004. In September 2004, then Secretary of State Colin Powell did the same. A few months later, in January 2005, a U.N. International Commission of Inquiry established by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1564 also found strong evidence of genocide in Darfur. In February 2006, Secretary of State Rice said that "genocide was committed and in fact continues in Darfur." Even so, international agreement on the existence of genocide has little connection to the need or basis for action.
Hundreds of acts of violence in Darfur, many constituting crimes against humanity and war crimes - along with specific descriptions of the perpetrators - have been recorded in detail by the U.S. State Department, the United Nations, the African Union, the NGO community, and other organizations. I urge you to read these gruesome accounts, and to also review the list of individuals who have been identified by the U.N. Panel of Experts established by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1591. In the case of Darfur, we are now obligated by the U.N. Charter, the Responsibility to Protect, several statutes of international human rights law, and existing U.N. Security Council resolutions to transform our awareness into action.
Therefore, I urge you, as President of the United States, to remind the international community of its commitments and to work urgently with the United Nations, the African Union, and NATO to protect civilians and address the growing crises in Darfur, eastern Chad, and eastern Sudan. Thank you for your attention to these urgent matters.
Hillary Rodham Clinton
CC: John R. Bolton
United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations
4. NATO ROLE IN DARFUR ON TABLE: U.S. BACKS MOVE TO SEND ADVISERS
THE WASHINGTON POST
April 10, 2006
By Bradley Graham and Colum Lynch
The Bush administration has settled on the idea of sending up to several hundred NATO advisers to help bolster African Union peacekeeping troops in their efforts to shield villagers in Sudan's Darfur region...
The move would include some U.S. troops and mark a significant expansion of U.S. and allied involvement in the conflict. So far, NATO's role has been limited to airlifting African Union forces to the region and providing a few military specialists to help the peacekeeping contingent.
The proposal, which still faces uncertain approval within NATO because of concerns that it could be a distraction from operations in Afghanistan, falls well short of more aggressive measures that some have advocated, such as sending ground combat troops or providing air patrols to protect peacekeepers and prevent the bombing of villages
In general, U.S. officials said, their aim has been to address shortcomings in the African Union force without upstaging that force and stirring resentment in a region highly sensitive to the presence of Western troops.
Plans under consideration envision fewer than 500 NATO advisers
The proposed deployment is intended as an interim measure until a U.N. force -- larger and with a broader mandate than the African Union force -- can be sent
The alliance's Military Committee is now drafting a plan that administration officials expect will be presented to NATO's political authorities later this month.
Nearly two months ago, President Bush signaled a new U.S. commitment to the Darfur crisis, calling for a sizable U.N. force and a bigger role for NATO in the peacekeeping effort
The U.N.'s military planning has been complicated by Khartoum's hardening opposition to a U.N. peacekeeping force in Darfur.
Full Text: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/09/AR2006040900957_pf.html
5. ANNAN TO SPEAK TO SUDANS PRESIDENT OVER BAN ON UN RELIEF CHIEFS TRIP TO DARFUR
THE UNITED NATIONS
April 4, 2006
Secretary-General Kofi Annan is seeking to speak to Sudanese President Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir after his Government banned a visit by the top United Nations relief official to the Darfur region
Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Jan Egeland's plane was refused permission to land on Sunday at the start of what was to have been a five-day visit
his obstruction is part of a larger whole, Mr. Egeland said in an interview with UN Radio. o block me from going to Darfur and saying Im unwelcome to go to Khartoum and even today blocking me traveling with my plane over Darfur to go to Chad just goes to show how difficult is the work of my colleagues on the ground.r hat I saw today and yesterday is symptomatic of a Government not helping us to help their own people in a situation where more and more are displaced and there is more and more violence and insecurity.
Calling the situation ntolerable, he stressed the need for international action, including the provision of resources, to help the people of Darfur. t the moment the UN doesnt even have enough money to give adequate food rations to everybody, he observed
The Security Council echoed Mr. Annans comments on Sudans Darfur region, with the President of the 15-member body for April, Ambassador Wang Guangya of China, telling reporters that the Council hares the concerns of the Secretary-General, and calling on all parties in Sudan to give more cooperation to UN missions.
...An enquiry set up by Mr. Annan found that there had been war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by both sides, but primarily by Government forces and militias. It referred a list of 51 as-yet undisclosed names to the International Criminal Court (ICC) for possible prosecution
Full Text: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=18060&Cr=Sudan&Cr1=
6. ANNAN CALLS FOR REDEPLOYMENT OF SOME PEACEKEEPERS FROM BURUNDI TO DR CONGO
THE UNITED NATIONS
April 4, 2006
United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has announced his intention to redeploy peacekeepers from the organization's operation in Burundi (ONUB) to its mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) to boost security and monitoring during the Congolese elections and beyond.
In a letter addressed to the President of the Security Council, which has already authorized the redeployment but must decide on the specifics, Mr. Annan said he would transfer one infantry battalion, a military hospital and up to 50 military observers for an initial period running through the end of this year.
Observers would be deployed throughout the country to increase observer capacity for the 18 June poll, which the UN is helping to organize in the largest and most expensive electoral operation the world body has ever undertaken.
Full Text: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=18058&Cr=Congo&Cr1
7. UN TO TARGET EGLECTED UGANDA CRISIS
THE TORONTO STAR
April 3, 2006
By John Goddard
The United Nations is to expand its humanitarian intervention in northern Uganda following a direct assessment over the weekend by the world body's emergency relief coordinator.
Jan Egeland also wants the UN to assign a special envoy to help raise the profile of what he called a "neglected" crisis.
But Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni rejected the special-envoy suggestion outright
Instead, Museveni agreed to UN intervention in several new areas. These include advising the Ugandan army on how best to protect civilians from the rebel Lord's Resistance Army bring LRA commanders to justice and help establish a civilian police and judicial system.
"There are few places on earth where terror has affected more people over such an extended period of time," Egeland said of Uganda's northern Acholiland region where fighting has continued almost unnoticed for 20 years, and where Lord's Resistance Army rebels target civilians and have abducted thousands of children as fighters.
"Altogether 1.7 million people have been displaced because of the terror," he told reporters Saturday in Kampala after his visit to the Pader district on the Sudanese border.
Full Text: http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/uganda/2006/0403neglected.htm
8. RWANDANS MARK 12-YEAR ANNIVERSARY OF THE BEGINNING OF THE GENOCIDE
THE WASHINGTON POST
April 7, 2006
By Gabriel Gabiro
Rwandans observed a nationwide minute of silence Friday to mark 12 years since the former extremist Hutu government launched its slaughter of more than half a million people, mainly ethnic minority Tutsi.
President Paul Kagame and survivors of the 100-day genocide were joined by diplomats and others at the Roman Catholic Cathedral for the beginning of a national week of mourning for the Tutsi and moderate Hutu majority targeted in the 1994 killings.
"The people here were killed by Rwandans, so it is up to us to fight for the dignity that we have lost," Kagame said. "We should take most of the responsibility of what happened."
Despite the passage of time, nations still seem unwilling to commit the troops and money needed to stop mass slaughters, Juan Mendez, the U.N. special adviser on prevention of genocide, said at the United Nations in New York.
Governments have repeatedly promised "never again" in the years since the Holocaust and the Rwanda killings. They have gotten better at nurturing peace processes, but are still reluctant to do much more, he said.
"My sense is there's the same kind of wariness," Mendez said, "`Let somebody else do it' is still very much in place."
Full Text: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/07/AR2006040702288.html
9. SADDAM TO FACE GENOCIDE CHARGES: Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is to be charged with genocide over a 1980s campaign against the Kurds, an Iraqi tribunal has announced.
BBC NEWS INTERNATIONAL
April 4, 2006
Saddam Hussein and six others face new charges over a campaign of killings, arrests, deportation and property destruction known as the Anfal.
Human rights groups say 180,000 civilians died in the campaign.
()The killings followed an attempt to assassinate the former Iraq leader.
Mahmoud Othman - an independent Kurdish member of the national parliament and former member of the Iraqi governing council - welcomed the announcement.
"The public reaction of our area in Kurdistan where these operations have happened is that they are very happy about it," he told the BBC News website.
"They were always criticizing the government and court, asking why these big charges were not brought. They want these people to be punished."
the Anfal campaign against the Kurds is widely regarded as one of the greatest crimes of Saddam Hussein's former regime.
The tribunal's decision to bring charges comes after investigators went through thousands of documents and eye-witness testimonies and uncovered mass graves
Correspondents say it is not clear whether the trial will run in parallel to the Dujail trial or after it.
The announcement comes a day before the Dujail trial - over the killing of Shias in 1982 - is set to resume.
Full Text: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4875678.stm
* Articles compiled by R2PCS intern: Marko Kovacevic