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26 May 2006

Responsibility to Protect Engaging Civil Society


Email: [email protected]

In this issue:

R2PCS Announcement

We are pleased to announce the latest resource on our website: The R2PCS Toolkit at < ahref=""> This toolkit includes an introduction to R2P, useful documents, the latest developments on the norm and ways forward. Please take a moment to visit this site and review the available documents. We would of course welcome feedback from colleagues about other relevant resources to include on this page and any thoughts you may have on the toolkit itself.

Please find the following articles below:

**Darfur Update

1. Deal on Mission in Darfur May Presage U.N. Presence: Move Called Precondition to Peacekeeping

I. Developments at the United Nations

The Peacebuilding Commission will hold its first meeting on 23 June 2006. For more information on the PBC and the recent selection of PBC Organizational Committee members visit our affiliated site:


2. Annan establishes prominent advisory group on genocide prevention

II. What UN officials are saying about R2P





III. Updates from around the world


7. Annan sends seasoned envoy to Timor-Leste following mob violence

8. Commandos arrive in East Timor

Additional resources


9. More Words From Burma


Northern Uganda


Darfur and R2P

12. Europe and Darfur

13. Stabilizing Darfur

IV. China, R2P and Darfur




Update: UN assessment team allowed into Darfur

1. Deal on Mission in Darfur May Presage U.N. Presence: Move Called Precondition to Peacekeeping

The Washington Post

From Reuters

26 May 2006

KHARTOUM, Sudan -- Sudan has agreed to allow a joint mission by the United Nations and the African Union into the country ahead of a possible deployment of U.N. troops to enforce a peace deal in the war-torn region of Darfur, a diplomat said Thursday.

"We agreed that in the coming days the United Nations and the African Union will send a joint assessment mission to Sudan," Lakhdar Brahimi, a special U.N. envoy, said after meeting with President Omar Hassan Bashir.()

Sudanese officials said they would negotiate with the United Nations over the mandate and size of a possible force in the troubled western region.

Brahimi said the mission would start work in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital, and then go to Darfur and assess the immediate needs of the African Union force. ()

Sudan's foreign minister, Lam Akol, said earlier Thursday that the country had not agreed to allow U.N. troops into Darfur and wanted more discussions involving the United Nations and the African Union before allowing any such move. But a U.N. source said the decision to allow the mission into the country was made after Brahimi's meeting with Bashir.

()Meanwhile, Human Rights Watch, a U.S.-based group, reported that the Janjaweed and Chadian recruits shot or hacked to death 118 villagers in eastern Chad last month in a spillover of violence from Darfur. The reported massacre is one of the worst acts of cross-border violence reported in Chad this year.

Human Rights Watch, citing witnesses and an on-site investigation, said the killings took place in four adjacent villages on April 12 and 13 as Chadian rebels were moving west to attack the capital Chadian capital, N'Djamena, in a failed coup attempt.

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I. UN Developments

2. Annan establishes prominent advisory group on genocide prevention

UN News Service

3 May 2006

Nobel Prize winner Desmond Tutu of South Africa and the former United Nations Force Commander in Rwanda are among the seven diverse experts appointed today by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to provide support to his Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide and to contribute to the broader efforts of the UN to prevent such massive crimes against humanity.

The Advisory Committee on Genocide Prevention will be chaired by David Hamburg, President Emeritus of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and meet at least twice during this year, with its first meeting scheduled for 19-20 June.

Mr. Annan named Juan Mndez the first Special Adviser on genocide prevention in July 2004, with a mandate to collect existing information on massive and serious violations of human rights that could lead to genocide and to bring potential genocidal situations to the attention of the UN Security Council ()

Other members of the Advisory Committee include:

- Monica Anderson, of the Department for International, Human Rights and Treaty Law of Sweden's Foreign Ministery

- Zackari Ibrahim, former Foreign Minister of Nigeria

- Romeo Dallaire of Canada, former UN Force Commander in Rwanda

- Gareth Evans, President of the International Crisis Group and former Foreign Minister of Australia

- Roberto Garreton of Chile, former representative for the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Latin America and Special Rapporteur on human rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo

- Sadako Ogata of Japan, former High Commissioner of Refugees, currently co-chair of the Commission on Human Security

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II. UN Officials Speaking out on R2P


Federal News Service

18 May 2006

Speaker: Jean-Marie Guehenn0, U.N. Undersecretary-General For Peacekeeping Operations
Presider: Lee Feinstein, Deputy Director of Studies, Council on Foreign Relations

() MR. FEINSTEIN: My final question before I turn to our colleagues is about the responsibility to protect But to the surprise of many of us it also included a very, very strong, I thought, endorsement of this idea of a responsibility to protect

Does this -- does acceptance of this norm -- and now I guess recently offered by the Security Council -- does this have any tangible impact on the work you do? And I'm told by my colleague that I'm supposed to mention that the council -- in particular, I am releasing a report on this subject soon.

But I wanted to ask you, does the acceptance of the responsibility to protect, and the emergency of this new norm, if I can put it that way, have a bearing on the work you do?

MR. GUEHENNO: Yes, because now in most resolutions authorizing a peace operation there will be a sentence to the effect that our forces will protect the civilians in imminent danger in the areas where they are deployed, which reflects the emergence of that norm and which also reflects common human feeling. If you see somebody being threatened right next to you, you have to -- it's a moral -- it's not just a legal -- duty to help.

Operationally, it raises all sorts of dilemmas. I remember in 2003 when we could see the violence mounting in Ituri in northeastern Congo.

the mission in Congo is still a very small mission when you look at the size of the country, with 17,000 troops for a country the size of Western Europe But it was much smaller at the time And we did not have fighting troops. We had essentially guard units. I had one reserve guard units; I decided to deploy it in Bunia to try to help and also to call the world's attention on it.

Now this is a very difficult decision, because it turned out right because it focused the attention of the world. It managed to get a stopgap measure with the French-led EU force, and then the reinforcement of the mission, and the situation considerably improved in Ituri. It's far -- it's not perfect, but it's certainly improved significantly. And I think we did avoid a lot of killings there.

It could have gone terribly wrong. We might not have had the decision of the EU. That battalion then could have been -- I was in Bunia at the worst time, the refugees congregating around this poor battalion, which was not really trained and didn't have the full capability to change the situation.

It could have looked like the U.N., once again, not protecting the people who trust it. So responsibility to protect, yes, but there has to be a strong commitment from member states, then, to back up with the right resources. Because it's obvious, then, the kind of force that we deploy can support a peace process; it cannot in any place where we are substitute for that peace process.

So at the end of the day, in a big country, I mean, responsibility to protect -- either you have overwhelming force, which is not a U.N. capacity, or you have some measure of consent and physical support locally that you can help. So it's -- I think it's moving very much in the right direction, but it raises a whole set of new issues

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UN News Service

19 May 2006

Following is the message of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to the Ministerial Conference of la Francophonie on Conflict Prevention and Human Security, in Saint-Boniface, Canada, 12-14 May:

()Human security and its connection to conflict prevention are among the new paths which we are exploring together to enhance the well-being and stability of the international community

We have all learned that conflict prevention, early warning, constant monitoring and perception of potential dangers are the best guarantees of peace and the best way to avoid exacerbation of crises and mass violations of human rights.

We also know that today civilian populations are the principal victims of the conflicts in international society. Now more than ever, upholding human rights imposes upon us the responsibility to protect to which the United Nations is, henceforth, committed.

But there are still many concepts to be clarified, procedures to be refined and new mechanisms to be devised. The International Organization of la Francophonie, under the leadership of its Secretary-General Abdou Diouf, has repeatedly shown its ability to innovate and in several fields it has contributed to decisive progress towards achieving our common goals of international peace and security.

I will accordingly keep myself informed of the results of your work and take them into account as new proof of the constructive cooperation

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Office of the Secretary-General of the United Nations

23 May 2006

Following is the text of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's message to the B'nai B'rith International Annual Mission to the United Nations, in New York yesterday, 22 May, as delivered by Angela Kane, Assistant-Secretary-General for Political Affairs:

Your visit comes at a time when the United Nations and the Jewish community continue to move closer together

We need you in our work for human rights. With a new Human Rights Council

We need your help in our efforts to prevent genocide and other crimes against humanity. In a breakthrough at last September's World Summit, Member States acknowledged for the first time a collective international responsibility to protect populations at risk. A test is now before us, in Darfur. Pending a transition to a UN peacekeeping operation, the current African mission needs to be strengthened immediately. We also need to buttress the massive UN-led aid effort, which is under threat because of deteriorating security and a funding shortfall. I urge you to continue your advocacy on this crisis, and thank you for the contributions you have made to the humanitarian effort.

B'nai B'rith also has a continuing role to play in promoting a just, lasting and comprehensive solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

To these and other challenges, B'nai B'rith International brings long international experience and a global presence that extends to dozens of countries.

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UN Secretary-General

5 May 2006

Following is Secretary-General Kofi Annans lecture at the George Washington University, entitled he United States and the United Nations: Working Together in the 21st Century, in Washington, D.C., 5 May:

Clearly, there is a whole range of global issues on which States need to work together in this century, if their citizens and businesses are to have the chance to live and prosper in a secure, orderly and predictable environment.

But if theres one I want to stress especially today, dear friends, it is the need for countries to work together to protect human rights.

In theory at least, the UNs Member states took an important step in this direction last September, when they agreed that each State has the responsibility to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity; and added that they were prepared to take collective action, in a timely and decisive manner, through the Security Council, should national authorities manifestly fail to protect their populations from such crimes.

But these fine words will ring hollow so long as people in Darfur are still being driven from their homes subjected to intolerable suffering.

No words can adequately express what I feel about this inexcusable tragedy

The humanitarian agencies urgently need financial support, and humanitarian workers need a more secure environment, if they are to reach those most in need of their help. It is, therefore, very urgent that all countries in a position to do so provide the African Union with the help it needs to augment and strengthen its force in order to be able to create a secure environment.

Even in the best-case scenario, the AU will be expected to shoulder this immense challenge for several more months. It deserves the international communitys help

Such help is precisely the kind of concrete action that would respond to the calls of thousands who marched here in Washington this past weekend. I do hope there will be growing calls from all parts of the world for effective protection and help to all who have suffered, in Darfur and throughout Sudan, over the past decades of civil war. Their fate must be a source of concern and shame to all of us, as human beings.

It is precisely to promote that sense of solidarity with every other human being -- no matter of what race or creed -- that we need effective human rights machinery in the United Nations.()

Never in history can humanity have faced so many challenges that affect not just one nation or region, but the whole human race; and which call for a global response.

At such a time, international cooperation is not a choice. Nor is a global organization a luxury. They are necessities.

In the end, only the Member States can mold the United Nations into the global instrument that humanity needs, to help it respond to the global challenges of this century. The question is whether the nations of the world today have the wisdom to come together and do that.

To do so, they will need firm, clear-sighted leadership, from leaders who can look beyond the narrow national interest, and articulate a global vision -- and who will have what President Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose vision was so central to the founding of the United Nations, called he courage to fulfill their responsibilities in an admittedly imperfect world.

Such leadership cannot come from one country alone. But the world will surely look to the United States to play its part.

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III. Updates from around the world


7. Annan sends seasoned envoy to Timor-Leste following mob violence

UN News Service

25 May 2006

Secretary-General Kofi Annan is sending a senior envoy who is an expert on Timor-Leste to assess the situation as army soldiers opened fire on unarmed police today in fresh violence, killing nine and injuring 27 others in the country which the United Nations shepherded to independence from Indonesia in 2002. ()

Concerned at the violence, which began last month when five people were killed and 60 injured in clashes after the dismissal of 594 soldiers - a third of the total armed forces - Mr. Annan today telephoned Timor-Leste and regional leaders, who have committed to send forces to help restore stability, a UN spokesmansaid. ()

n view of the deteriorating security and complex political situation, the Secretary-General has decided to send Ian Martin, head of the UN Human Rights Mission in Nepal, to Dili to assess the situation first hand, the spokesman said. ()

Meanwhile, the Security Council today issued a presidential statement welcoming the Secretary-General's initiatives, voicing deep concern at developments in Timor-Leste, recognizing the urgency of the deteriorating situation and condemning the violence.

he Security Council urges the Government of Timor-Leste to take all necessary steps to end the violence with due respect for human rights and to restore a secure and stable environment, said Basile Ikouebe of the Republic of the Congo, which holds the Council's rotating presidency.

In its statement, the Council also acknowledged the request made by the Government of Timor-Leste to the Governments of Portugal, Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia to dispatch defence and security forces under bilateral arrangements. ()

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8. Commandos arrive in East Timor


25 May 2006

()Australian commandos have arrived in East Timor after gun battles in the capital claimed more lives and kept residents off the streets.

About 150 commandos secured the airport in Dili on Thursday before the deployment of 1,300 troops to help to restore peace and order after weeks of unrest.

John Howard, the Australian prime minister, said the East Timor government was desperate for the Australian troops to arrive.()

"Given the detriorating situation we will go ahead, without any conditionality, with the full deployment and the 1,300 [troops] will be in place in a very short order."()

Government request

()The government asked for troops from Australia, New Zealand, Portugal and Malaysia this week after a police unit rebelled and its own forces proved incapable of calming the situation.

()Malaysia will deploy 275 para-commandos

The Portuguese government said it would send 120 military police.

Gun battles

The arrival of Australian troops came amid reports of widespread shooting in the capital on Thursday.()

.At least five people have been killed and 22 injured in unrest in the capital this week, prompting the government to ask for international troops only days after celebrating East Timor's fourth anniversary of independence from Indonesia.

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Additional Articles:

Timor Leste: ICRC ready to step up action

Violent Clashes in Timor-Leste Ease


9. More Words From Burma

The Washington Post


25 May 2006

BURMA'S dictators may be willing "to turn a new page in relations with the international community." So said the United Nations' second-ranking official, Undersecretary General Ibrahim Gambari, speaking yesterday after his recent trip to that Southeast Asian nation

The ruling junta has made many similar promises in the past, and it has yet to honor one the regime is waging a deliberate and brutal ethnic cleansing campaign against the people of the Karen nationality. The U.N. special rapporteur on human rights in Burma, Paulo Srgio Pinheiro, and five other top U.N. officials issued a statement of alarm last Tuesday about the displacement of "thousands of ethnic minority villagers." It said that other reports from various sources "corroborate very serious allegations of unlawful killings, torture, rape and forced labor"

Last year the world's nations, acting through the United Nations, promised to consider collective action if "national authorities manifestly fail to protect their populations." Yet their response to Burma's brutalization of its own people has been lethargic. The Security Council has refused up to now even to endorse a resolution demanding political dialogue and the freeing of political prisoners. China and Russia haven't wanted to involve themselves; more surprisingly, neither has democratic Japan -- this despite the fact that the regime's corruption and misrule present an obvious threat to neighboring countries, in the spread of AIDS, heroin and refugees.

The irony here is that Burma ought to be an easy case. in Burma, there is no question that the people support Aung San Suu Kyi -- a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, wedded to nonviolence, committed to peaceful dialogue with the nationalities that Burma's regime seeks to wipe out

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Thai Press Reports


12 May 2006

() According to recent news reports, Burmese troops are waging their biggest military campaign in recent memory, uprooting more than 11,000 ethnic Karen and conducting a widespread campaign punctuated by killing, torture and the burning of villages.

In a little-noticed move last week that may help spur calls for action on Burma, the UN Security Council unanimously affirmed that all states have a "responsibility to protect" innocent civilians from genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity and war crimes, including through actions binding on all states under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. The timing couldn't be better.

Last September, former Czech Republic president Vaclav Havel and Bishop Desmond Tutu commissioned my law firm to produce "Threat to the Peace: A Call for the UN Security Council to Act in Burma". The report argued that the military junta is not just a threat to its own people; the worsening crisis in Burma has serious transnational effects that are destabilising the broader region.

() the military junta has committed grave, systematic and widespread human-rights abuses against the Burmese people. Such abuses include the destruction of more than 2,700 villages since 1996, massive forced relocations, rape of ethnic minorities by government soldiers, widespread forced labour and the use of than 70,000 child soldiers by the regime. ()

In a historic briefing on December 16, the Security Council finally took up the situation in Burma for the first time

After a recent trip to Rangoon on behalf of Asean that was delayed for months, Malaysian Foreign Minister Syed Hamid Albar came back empty-handed. He recently commented, "There is a feeling that Myanmar [Burma] is dragging us down in terms of our credibility and image." ()

Serious leadership by the UN Security Council now will send a clear message to the generals that business as usual will no longer be tolerated. For the world to ignore the suffering of the Burmese people and the dangers posed by the Burmese junta would be an abrogation of our collective responsibility.

Jared Genser is an attorney with DLA Piper Rudnick Gray Cary LLP in Washington DC.

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Northern Uganda


US Congress: House of Representatives: Committee House International Relations Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights and International Operations on International Relations, Africa

Capitol Hill Hearing Testimony

26 April 2006

Testimony by: Leonard Rogers, Deputy Assistant Administrator, United States Agency for International Development

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to testify at today's hearing. Northern Uganda remains one of the world's least publicized humanitarian emergencies with 1.5 million or more persons internally displaced by ongoing conflict. I have seen first-hand the situation in Northern Uganda, and I can assure you that this is a conflict that merits the close attention of this Subcommittee

Lord's Resistance Army
.The LRA is a sub-regional issue that must be addressed. The LRA now threaten regional stability not only in Uganda, but in the volatile regions of southern Sudan and eastern Congo. The latter two countries are emerging, we hope, from long periods of warfare with heavy US investment in securing a peace. In particular, it threatens the fragile political situation in Sudan and implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Overall, LRA activity in Northern Uganda and southern Sudan limits humanitarian access; blocks trans-border market and logistics routes; and limits agricultural production and trade.

Humanitarian Conditions
Most of the estimated 1.5 million persons displaced during Northern Uganda's conflict continue to live in deplorable conditions, scattered among more than 200 camps. With more than 90 percent of the population pushed from their homes in several districts, population density in Northern Uganda's overcrowded camps is virtually unprecedented even by international emergency standards.

The international relief community depends on measurements of mortality rates to obtain essential information about how well the affected population is surviving and what more needs to be done. Therefore, it was highly significant when a much- anticipated study of mortality levels in Northern Ugandan camps in 2005 found that mortality rates among the displaced population averaged 1.54 deaths per day per 10,000 people, significantly above the commonly used emergency threshold of 1 death per day, and more than triple the normal expected death rate in non- emergency communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Among children under age five, mortality rates in Northern Uganda's conflict zone were even more tragic, averaging 3.18 deaths per day per 10,000 children. These mortality rates translate into more than 900 excess deaths per week among displaced Ugandans.()

Protection Issues
Mr. Chairman, as you may know, USAID has made a concerted effort in recent years to be more mindful of the serious protection problems confronting many of the needy populations we serve USAID adopted an official policy on assistance to internally displaced persons in 2004 that explicitly acknowledges USAID's responsibility to devise programming strategies within its mandate to try to help vulnerable populations better manage the security risks they face.()

USAID's two protection assessments in Northern Uganda found that while displaced Ugandans express appreciation that government soldiers and government-supported local defense units offer some security from LRA attacks, mistreatment of camp residents by some of those same Ugandan government security personnel remains a continuing problem. Citizens in Northern Uganda complain frequently of mistreatment by security personnel, and say that neither the Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF) nor the judicial system offers an adequate mechanism for addressing these complaints. The UPDF has taken strong measures against some perpetrators, and has even executed soldiers convicted of these offenses. However, in other cases there has been no effective action against those responsible. In the three Acholi districts of Gulu, Kitgum and Pader, where most displacement is concentrated, Ugandan government restrictions limit residents' movements outside the camps to a few kilometers during daylight hours. While tight controls on civilian movement are meant to protect the population and hamper the LRA, many Northern Ugandans report that as a result they are unable to engage in livelihood activities such as farming and trade()

USAID welcomes the Government of Uganda's plans to establish "Civil-Military Coordination Centers" and "Subcommittees on Human Rights Promotion and Protection" to monitor, report, and resolve protection problems and facilitate accountability. USAID will work with the Government of Uganda to help implement such plans effectively ()

[See full text for details about USAID programming and initiatives for 2006]

The Way Forward
USAID is acutely aware that its ability to help bring dramatic improvements to the lives of Northern Ugandans is limited until the LRA conflict ends either by military or political means. Within USAID's mandate, here is our thinking about the way forward In addition to the aid that USAID is providing, other donor countries, UN humanitarian agencies, and the Government of Uganda itself need to do more. Northern Uganda contains, by some independent estimates, the third largest displaced population in the world. It is worth noting that Uganda and its neighboring countries of Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo collectively account for nearly four of every ten internally displaced people on this planet

First, as mentioned earlier, the USAID Mission in Uganda is making budgetary and staffing adjustments to strengthen its ability to respond in Northern Uganda

Secondly, all USAID relief and development programs in Northern Uganda will make a heightened effort to analyze the population's protection problems and integrate those concerns into our programming. We know, for example, that improved water programs can help protect displaced populations by reducing their need to seek water at dangerous locations outside of camps. Basic health programs can do a better job of identifying and treating rape victims. Food rations can be distributed in ways that reduce the risk of theft or exploitation. USAID believes that efforts to "push" the LRA through military and diplomatic pressure should be complemented by stronger efforts to "pull" non-indicted LRA commanders away from the LRA by persuading them to defect Therefore, more effort is needed to disseminate information about demobilization and reintegration programs for LRA ex-combatants, and specialized support is required immediately to improve those reintegration programs.

Additionally, USAID and the Department of State Bureau for Population, Refugees, and Migration (State/PRM) have closely collaborated to push the UN to improve its global humanitarian response system Such UN reforms are particularly crucial in Northern Uganda because of the UN system's weak performance there... The UN has appropriately chosen Northern Uganda as a prime location to introduce one of the humanitarian reforms during 2006, known as the "cluster leads strategy", which we believe will make the response by the UN humanitarian community more predictable and the UN agencies more accountable

The Ugandan government last year unveiled an excellent overall "National Policy for Internally Displaced Persons" that largely remains to be implemented in practice

In March 2006, Ugandan authorities in consultation with bilateral and multilateral partners prepared an "Emergency Plan for Humanitarian Interventions in LRA-Affected Areas of Northern Uganda" and designated a Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) to set performance benchmarks. The JMC includes the U.S. Government, the governments of the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, and South Africa, and representatives of the World Bank, the UN, and civil society. The Emergency Plan pledges intensified efforts by the Ugandan government to end the conflict in the North and lay the groundwork for reconciliation and ex-combatant reintegration. The Action Plan commits the Government of Uganda to enhance protection of displaced populations and improve camp conditions. It is noteworthy that the new Emergency Plan commits the Ugandan government "to increased funding for interventions identified in the Action Plan." USAID will work closely with the Government of Uganda to take concrete actions which produce tangible results through the JMC and to fulfill its primary responsibility for the protection of its citizens.

In addition, the Government of Uganda in the coming months will finalize a comprehensive National Peace, Recovery, and Development Plan for Northern Uganda which USAID hopes will provide an even more detailed picture of the Ugandan government's plans and commitment to the North.

Therefore, signs of increased tensions between the Government of Uganda and international relief agencies are troubling and will, we hope, be resolved in a manner that best serves the considerable needs of Northern Uganda's large, vulnerable population.

The Department of State's testimony refers to recently passed Ugandan legislation that would impose tighter licensing and permit rules on non- governmental organizations (NGOs). This has raised concerns among local and international relief organizations that Ugandan officials are seeking greater control over some agencies' information collection and advocacy efforts on behalf of Northern Uganda's conflict victims. USAID will work closely with Ugandan authorities to promote a process for strengthening collaboration between nongovernmental organizations and the Government of Uganda, including institutionalized channels of regular communication and adequate representation of NGO viewpoints

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Transcripts for all of the speakers:

R2P and Darfur

12. Europe and Darfur

The International Herald Tribune

Letter to the Editor

By Nick Grono, Vice president for advocacy and operations, International Crisis Group

23 May 2006

Javier Solana (''Stabilizing Darfur,'' Views, May 20) is right in saying that Europe has been at the forefront of efforts to end the conflict in Darfur. But there is much more that Europe can and should do to fulfill the international community's responsibility to protect the people of Darfur.

Specifically, European member states must take all necessary measures to overcome Sudanese obstruction and ensure that a UN peacekeeping force is deployed to Darfur by Sept. 30, when the mandate of the current African Union force expires. And, most important, they must commit their own troops to the UN mission

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Original Article

13. Stabilizing Darfur

International Herald Tribune

By Javier Solana

19 May 2006

The long-suffering people of Darfur need help - not next week, or next month, but today Extreme human rights violations are continuing and aid deliveries are facing huge difficulties and risk being cut back

That is why the European Union is engaged, on all fronts, in helping to find a solution to the crisis in Darfur

But we also know that African countries must be in the lead. Europeans acting on their own are unable to achieve much. What we can do and are doing is supporting African efforts with political, financial, logistical and other forms of assistance.

From the beginning of the conflict, the European Union has supported the African Union's efforts to stabilize the situation. It has funded the African Union force to the tune of 212 million. It has trained, equipped and transported the African troops and it has dispatched European military experts and police officers to the field. Without the European Union, there would probably not have been any AU force to offer a degree of protection to the people of Darfur.()

The peace agreement reached in Abuja is good news for the women and children of Darfur Europe will be at the forefront in ensuring that the peace agreement is implemented

To this end, the European Union has set three priorities:

First, we must convince those who have not yet signed the peace agreement to do so by May 31, the deadline fixed by the African Union

Second, we must stress to the Sudanese government that the Abuja agreement should pave the way for deploying a United Nations peacekeeping operation as soon as possible

Third, pending the arrival of the blue helmets, we will continue to support the African Union force in Darfur. Europe will play its part with extra logistical and other support

Javier Solana is the European Union's High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

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IV. China, R2P and Darfur


China Daily

From: Financial Times Information
24 May 2006

China has conveyed a clear message to visiting United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan.

Chinese leaders told the UN's top diplomat that the country will throw its weight behind reform of the global organization. ()

An authoritative, efficient and well co-ordinated UN benefits global peace, security and common development. ()

There is no alternative for the world organization but to undergo a thorough reform, and this must include prioritizing the fight against poverty. ()

The 35-page document which heads of state and government signed up at last September's New York summit serves as a map for the way ahead.

It calls for the creation of peace-building commission to supervise the reconstruction of countries after conflicts are ended. A new doctrine setting out a "responsibility to protect" in cases of genocide and crimes against humanity has been adopted.

UN reform is making progress, although debate on how to move it further is dragging on.()

Challenges have been piling up for the world body. The reform must help it work together with regional organizations in a more integrated manner than in the past and master the complexities of current situation.

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15. China denies it ignores human rights abuses in pursuit of oil

Agence France Presse English

27 April 2006

China rejected accusations Thursday that it ignored human rights abuses in countries such as Sudan as it searched for oil and other natural resources to fuel its rapidly growing economy.

Foreign ministry spokesman Qin Gang angrily denied allegations from human rights groups, think tanks and the international media that Beijing had turned a blind eye to rights violations to secure oil.

"China is a responsible country. On the international stage, we maintain peace, cooperation and development."

A report in January by the Council on Foreign Relations, a US-based non-partisan research group, said China is one of the main purchasers of oil from Sudan and also sells weapons to the Sudanese government.()

It is also accused of backing other regimes that violate human rights, including Myanmar, Angola and Zimbabwe

However, Qin declined to explain China's decision this week to abstain from voting on a Security Council resolution ordering financial and travel sanctions on four Sudanese, including a general and militia leader, blamed for bloodshed and rights abuses in Darfur.

Beijing often reiterates its policy of "non-interference" in other countries' internal affairs to explain its stance in similar matters.

US President George W. Bush also raised the issue of Sudan with visiting Chinese President Hu Jintao last week

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16. Beijing casts shadow over Chadian-Sudanese conflict

Liberation (France)

By Christophe Ayad

From: BBC Monitoring International Reports
25 April 2006

Is the civil war in Chad a conflict between major powers, for oil? This is a topical question since Beijing stands accused of having helped and armed the rebels of the United Front for Change (FUC,) who carried out a bloodthirsty raid on the Chadian capital on 13 April. [President] Idriss Deby, helped by France, repulsed the assault amid violent fighting.

Refugees: According to the Chadian president, the FUC is merely the armed extension of Sudan, which is apparently trying to establish in Ndjamena a regime less favourably disposed to the rebels of Darfur. The latter, who have been at war with Khartoum for the past three years, often use Chad - where there are 200,000 Sudanese refugees from Darfur - as a rear base. Many sources agree that Sudan's support for the Chadian rebellion is an established fact, as is Chad's for the rebellion in Darfur. If this war between neighbours via interposed rebellions is no surprise, what would Beijing stand to gain from supplying weapons and ATVs to the FUC, as the latest edition of Le Journal du Dimanche claims, citing an anonymous Sudanese source?

In fact a huge strategic game is taking place in the heart of Africa for control of black gold. Beijing already buys 10 per cent of its oil imports from Sudan, where China, together with Malaysia, controls a large proportion of the output, which increased to 500,000 barrels a day last week. This oil is exported to China from Port Sudan, via a pipeline constructed by... China. In exchange, Beijing has granted a major loan as direct budgetary aid to Khartoum and has always "protected" Sudan within the UN Security Council, threatening to veto sanctions for the excesses perpetrated in Darfur or a complete weapons embargo.

While financing the FUC rebels, Beijing apparently has its attention focused on Chadian oil (200,000 barrels a day,) extracted in the South of the country by a US-Malaysian consortium and conveyed to the United States via the Cameroonian port of Kribi, in the Gulf of Guinea. A more favourably disposed government in Ndjamena could grant oil permits and authorize an oil pipeline joining southern Chad and Sudan in order to reverse the flow of black gold. China apparently also has an interest in the subsoil of Darfur, which might harbour fossil fuels So it seems that the war between Washington and Beijing has already begun, amid the sands of Africa...

Degree: Though nobody challenges this geopolitical analysis, Beijing's degree of involvement remains to be established. "There is for the present no proof of the Chinese government's involvement," one French official said, adding that Beijing probably did not appreciate Chad's recognition of Taiwan.

Such an involvement by China would be a first, particularly since Beijing does not want a direct conflict with France in Africa. It is not impossible, however, that a private Chinese oil firm has dealings with the Chadian rebels. The Chinese have already supported ethnic cleansing operations in the oil areas of southern Sudan. More likely, China has turned a blind eye to its Sudanese ally, which produces weapons - under Chinese licence - and supplies them to the FUC. Hitherto Beijing has never had cause to complain about Khartoum's initiatives.

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