04 October 2006
Responsibility to Protect Engaging Civil Society
In this issue:
[R2P in the GA and SG Candidates Discourses, R2P in the News, Darfur, US Initiatives Calling for Action on Sudan]
List of Articles:
I. R2P in Discourse of SG and Candidates
1. Contender for top UN job says he can heal its rift with US
2. BBC Profile: kofi annan and r2p
3. eXCERPTS FROM un SECRETARY-general candidates on r2p
II. R2P Discourse in the General Assembly
1. RESOURCE ON REFERENCES IN GENERAL DEBATE TO R2P, DARFUR
III. R2P in the New
1. THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT: ZIMBABWE
2. COUNCIL OF RELIGIOUS LEADERS OF METROPOLITAN CHICAGO ADOPTS R2P
1. SUDAN: UNITED NATIONS SHOULD APPROVE DARFUR FORCE NOW, BUSH SAYS
2. SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS FOR ONE YEAR WORK OF EXPERT PANEL MONITORING ARMS EMBARGO IN DARFUR
3. UN 'MUST DROP' DARFUR PEACE FORCE
4. THE BOOK WAS CLOSED TOO SOON ON PEACE IN DAFUR
5. SUDAN TO MOBILIZE AGAINST 1706
V. US Initiatives Calling for Action on Sudan
1. US LAWMAKERS PRESS ARAB GOVERNMENTS, CHINA ON DARFUR
2. NEW LAW HIT PUBLIC FUNDS' INVESTMENT IN SUDAN HOLDINGS
I. R2P in Discourse of SG and Candidates
1) CONTENDER FOR TOP UN JOB SAYS HE CAN HEAL ITS RIFT WITH US
3 October 2006
() South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-Moon, in a telephone interview with AFP, also stressed the need for the UN to promote global development and protect victims of crimes against humanity. ()
Ban also urged strong action to protect communities threatened by genocide. "When a country is not able to protect its own people from crimes against humanity and genocide and prevents the international community from intervening on the excuse of sovereignty, the international community has a responsibility to protect those people from genocide," he said. ()
He said the Sudanese government must accept the Security Council resolution to deploy a peacekeeping mission in its Darfur region. ()
Full text: http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=26802
2) PROFILE: KOFI ANNAN
2 October 2006
() Mr Annan's major project at the UN was reform. In a speech in September 2003 he said that the UN was at a "fork in the road". He pressed for a new philosophy - that of intervention. The UN must place itself above the rights of sovereign states when necessary to protect civilians from war and mass slaughter, he declared.
He appointed a panel of "wise men" who drew up a report agreeing that the UN should assume a role when a state had failed in its "responsibility to protect" its citizens. In September 2005, a UN declaration stated that "every sovereign government has a 'responsibility to protect' its citizens and those within its jurisdiction from genocide, mass killing, and massive and sustained human rights violations."
The application of this principle remains to be worked out in practice but the principle itself might be Kofi Annan's most important legacy at the UN.
Full Text: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1411047.stm
3) EXCERPTS FROM UN SECRETARY-GENERAL CANDIDATES
WHY SHOULD I RUN THE UN
New York Times
28 September 2006
()The Op-Ed page asked all seven candidates to respond to two questions. First, we asked them to discuss an avoidable mistake the United Nations had made within the last five years. Second, we asked them what major reform they would undertake as secretary general. ()
By Vaira Vike-Freiberga
President of Latvia
As a former refugee, I attach special importance to ensuring peace, security and the protection of the most vulnerable groups. Too often during the past five years, the United Nations has focused on the letter, not the spirit, of its charter when it needed to protect civilians caught in warfare. The international community's responsibility to protect must not be an empty concept but a genuine obligation, and United Nations peacekeeping mandates must be more robust. ()
THE DARFUR GAP
By Jayantha Dhanapala
Senior adviser to the president of Sri Lanka, former ambassador to the United States and former United Nations under secretary general.
There are many things the United Nations has done right. But like all institutions, it is fallible. Thus, as invidious as it may seem to single out one mistake, I must say that the violence in Darfur stands as an indictment against the United Nations. For three years, the suffering civilians there received little but hand-wringing, stopgap humanitarian efforts and an African Union peacekeeping force. Finally the Security Council last month voted to expand the United Nations mission in Sudan to include Darfur. That this resolution remains unenforced reflects the collective failure of the United Nations' membership and its institutions, including the Secretariat.
Darfur exposes the glaring absence of a rapid response mechanism for humanitarian disasters. Politics trumps compassion: the world has to wait for the Security Council to agree to act, for funds to be pledged and collected and troops to be deployed. We need a swiftly deployable humanitarian disaster management team, made up of experts from different disciplines supplied by member states. Members that have advanced satellite reconnaissance technology could provide early warning of disasters, both natural and manmade. And a small, robust force of rapidly deployable troops, with clear rules of engagement approved by the Security Council, would be necessary to protect humanitarian workers from attack or abduction.
After the avoidable tragedies in Rwanda and Srebrenica, the prevention of genocide and ethnic cleansing is central to human security in all its dimensions, and it is crucial to the United Nations' founding mandate: to eliminate "the scourge of war" and ensure human rights, the rule of law and economic and social advancement.
For more information on the Secretary-General candidates, please visit:
II. R2P Discourse in the General Assembly
1) RESOURCE ON REFERENCES IN GENERAL DEBATE TO R2P, DARFUR
Human Rights First published an assessment of the use of R2P and discussions of Darfur by member states at the annual General Debates.
The General Debates, held this year from 19-27 September, are the high-level plenary meetings opening the year's General Assembly session.
According to Human Rights First, out of 148 states, only a disappointing 13 mentioned R2P directly, and 55 mentioned Darfur in their addresses.
The table on the link below shows the states in question and their relevant excerpts:
Table and Excerpts:
You may find the Human Rights First Article at:
III. R2P in the News
1) THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT
SW Radio Africa
by Eddie Cross
2 October 2006
For almost all of the 20th Century, a basic dictum of international diplomacy was "non interference in the internal affairs of other States". Even today, Mugabe angrily denounces all attempts to even discuss the crisis in Zimbabwe at international gatherings as "interference in our internal affairs." At the SADC summit last month he stormed out of that gathering and flew home 24 hours early when leaders insisted that the Zimbabwe situation be discussed in a closed session. ()
Today the international media are banned from Zimbabwe and unless someone has the courage and the equipment to film something clandestinely the world cannot see what is happening here. That does not excuse leaders. ()
The crisis in Darfur is serious, but it does not compare to the situation in Zimbabwe where a criminal class is in power, is terrified of its past and is fighting to stay in control at any cost. ()
Like Burma and North Korea they have built up a military State that is able and willing to maintain itself on what remains and can continue to do so indefinitely. The only recourse of its beleaguered and embattled population is flight or a form of national "house arrest".
The Zimbabwe situation is one that is wide open to international intervention. The failure by African leaders, the South African leadership in particular, demands that the international community itself takes a fresh look at what is going on and what can be done to get things back on track.
Unlike Darfur, Iraq, Burma and North Korea Zimbabwe is vulnerable to international action. It is a small country with limited resources none of them really strategic, it is land locked and its neighbours hold the key to the survival of the regime.()
For the sake of its people, the international community has an obligation to interfere. It does not require military intervention of any sort, just coordinated and concerted action by the leaders of democracies in Africa and abroad.
Full text: http://www.swradioafrica.com/pages/eddie021006.htm
2) COUNCIL OF RELIGIOUS LEADERS OF METROPOLITAN CHICAGO ADOPTS R2P RESOLUTION
25 September 2006
()The Council of Religious Leaders of Metropolitan Chicago representing leaders of the Chicago area ecumenical and interfaith communities, affirmed the vision and aims of the R2P Coalition, through a resolution passed at its recent meeting.
Following a presentation by Richard Cooper, convener of the R2P Coalition, a nonpartisan and not-for-profit grassroots organization whose mission is to convince the American people and its leaders to embrace the norm of the responsibility to protect as a domestic and foreign policy priority, the Council adopted the following:
"The Council of Religious Leaders of Metropolitan Chicago expresses its gratitude and deep appreciation for the presentation of Mr. Cooper concerning the 'Responsibility to protect' compact.
"The Council affirms the vision and aims of this important initiative and is committed to a vigorous engagement with its implications for the Council and its respective constituencies."
() The promotion of this vision, spearheaded locally and nationally by Mr. Cooper, has already received the support of a number of leaders in both the public and private sectors.
The Council of Religious Leaders of Metropolitan Chicago is composed of the chief leaders of the Greater Chicago area's Roman Catholic, Episcopal, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Protestant, Jewish and Islamic communions and institutions.
More information on the R2P Coalition, its goals and its members can be found at:
1) SUDAN: UNITED NATIONS SHOULD APPROVE DARFUR FORCE NOW, BUSH SAYS
US State Department
2 October 2006
President Bush says the world has a responsibility to respond to genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan and the United Nations "should not wait any longer" to approve a U.N. peacekeeping force to protect civilians there. ()
Speaking with U.S. Special Envoy for Sudan Andrew Natsios October 2, the president said the United Nations "can play an important role in helping us achieve our objective, which is to end human suffering and deprivation," and repeated the U.S. characterization of the suffering as genocide. ()
2) SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS FOR ONE YEAR WORK OF EXPERT PANEL MONITORING ARMS EMBARGO IN DARFUR, REQUESTS ADDITIONAL EXPERT, UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTING RESOLUTION 1713 (2006)
29 September 2006
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter, the Council, by unanimously adopting resolution 1713 (2006), decided to extend until 29 September 2007, the mandate of the four-member Panel of Experts originally appointed pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005), and requested the Secretary-General to appoint a fifth member to the team. ()
The Council gave the Panel 90 days to provide an interim report to the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005), to monitor the arms embargo, and requested the Panel to provide, no later than 29 March 2007, a midterm briefing on its work, and a final report to the Council with its findings and recommendations no later than 30 days prior to termination of its mandate.
It also urged all States, relevant United Nations bodies, the African Union and other interested parties, to cooperate fully with the Committee and the Panel of Experts, in particular by supplying any information at their disposal on implementation of the measures imposed by resolutions 1591 (2005) and 1556 (2004).
Full Text: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8845.doc.htm
3) UN 'MUST DROP' DARFUR PEACE FORCE
29 September 2006
Top UN officials say the world body must abandon efforts to pressure Sudan to accept UN peacekeepers in Darfur.
UN Sudan envoy Jan Pronk says the existing African Union force should instead be strengthened. Sudan has always argued that the AU should remain in charge of peacekeeping in Darfur, rather than the UN.
In an interview with the UK-based Independent newspaper, Mr Malloch Brown said UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President George W Bush "need to get beyond this posturing and grandstanding". He said the two leaders' "megaphone diplomacy" was not "plausible", almost "counterproductive" in Sudan. ()
"Sudan doesn't see a united international community," Mr Malloch Brown said. He said this meant Khartoum had come to regard itself as the latest front in the "war on terror" - "the victims of the next crusade after Iraq and Afghanistan".
Mr Malloch Brown said major Arab and African states, as well as China, should play a greater role in diplomacy over Darfur. Mr Pronk has meanwhile told the Associated Press news agency he does not expect Khartoum to accept UN peacekeepers any time soon.
"The international community should instead push for the African Union's mission to be prolonged and reinforced," Mr Pronk is quoted as saying.
Mr Pronk is quoted as saying he was certain Khartoum would allow the AU force to stay on in Darfur.
Full text: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/5390974.stm
4) THE BOOK WAS CLOSED TOO SOON ON PEACE IN DAFUR
Alex de Waal
29 September 2006
()There is still a chance to protect Darfur's civilians from a further round of violence, hunger and displacement, but only if government and rebels resume peace negotiations. This means stepping back from rhetorical confrontation and empty threats of military action. Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir knows that US and British saber-rattling is moralistic hyperventilation, and he has called their bluff. Finding a solution hinges on a sober assessment of what is practical, not on making Darfur a guinea pig for "the duty to protect" or a test case for a new global moral consciousness. ()
() The only way peacekeeping works is with consent: the agreement of the Sudan government and the support of the majority of the Darfurian populace, including the leaders of the multitudinous armed groups in the region. Without this, UN troops will not only fail but will make the plight of Darfurians even worse. ()
The immediate root of today's crisis in Darfur is the breakdown of the political process. () The breakdown did not happen because the peace agreement was faulty, but because the political process was brought to an abrupt and premature end when Minawi signed. I was part of the African Union mediation team and was present in the final negotiating session when Wahid declared the DPA's security arrangements "acceptable" and the wealth-sharing provisions "95% acceptable." ()
We need to get back to negotiation. Step one is to reconstitute the Darfur ceasefire commission so that all the warring parties are represented. A good ceasefire agreement is the best measure to protect Darfurian civilians.
Step two is resuming dialogue towards an overall political settlement. This involves a credible negotiation to address the shortcomings of the DPA and also a patient and all-inclusive community dialogue to address the local issues that contributed to the war and mass killing. Diplomatic efforts are underway on both: they need political backing and time to succeed.
We should recognise that restoring stability to Darfur is a long task - at least seven to 10 years - and that this job is nine parts politics and community relations to one part force, or the threat of force. And while the Sudan government is the major cause of the tragedy, that government must also be a partner in finding a solution. The decision to keep AU peacekeepers until the end of the year gives us a breathing space. Let's tone down the rhetoric and focus on the politics and the practicalities.
Alex de Waal is the author, with Julie Flint, of Darfur: A Short History of a Long War; he was an adviser to the African Union mediation for the conflict in Darfur comment@...
Full Text: http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1883560,00.html
6) SUDAN TO MOBILIZE AGAINST 1706
26 September 2006
Sudan has threatened to mobilize its army and masses to confront any possible deployment of U.N.-mandated international forces in Darfur province.
Sudanese Defense Minister Maj. Gen. Abdel Rahman Mohammed Hassanein reiterated at a press conference in Amman Tuesday his country's rejection of Security Council Resolution 1706 which calls on Khartoum to accept the deployment of some 17,000 troops in Darfur in west Sudan . ()
Hassanein warned that any country that will contribute troops to the U.N. force for Darfur will be regarded as declaring war on Sudan, stressing that the Sudanese government will resist the international forces and is preparing itself politically, economically and militarily to confront an international intervention.
He charged that the U.N. decision sabotaged the Abuja agreement signed between the government and three main factions in the war-torn province "which had provided a suitable settlement that guarantees equitable sharing of wealth and power.
V. US Initiatives Calling for Action on Sudan
1) US LAWMAKERS PRESS ARAB GOVERNMENTS, CHINA ON DARFUR
Voice of America
By Dan Robinson
29 September 2006
African-American lawmakers have met with diplomats from China and Arab countries, in an effort to assist U.S. efforts at pressuring the government of Sudan to agree to a U.N. force for Darfur. The U.S. lawmakers also met with Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice about Darfur.
In what some described as tough discussions, members of the Congressional Black Caucus spent more than an hour behind closed doors with ambassadors and diplomats from Arab countries.()
Attending, according to congressional aides, were Egypt's ambassador to the United States, Nabil Fahmy, and the Arab League ambassador to the U.S., Hussein Hassouna.
Also, diplomats from 10 other countries, including Jordan, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Mauritania, Morocco, Djibouti, Qatar, Oman and Saudi Arabia.
Donald Payne, a New Jersey Democrat told VOA the lawmakers had, in his words, "drawn our line in the sand" regarding the need for urgent Arab government pressure on the Khartoum government to allow a 20,000-strong U.N. force into Darfur: "We reiterated our feeling that the Arab League has the power, and the authority, and the relationship with the government of Sudan to move [Sudan president] Bashir. If anyone can do it, they can and we asked them to go back to their capitals, (send) a message to their capitals, send a message to Bashir that he has to change his ways," he said.()
Payne said he and others were "not diplomatic" in delivering a message that Khartoum's objections to a U.N. force may ultimately not prevent a U.N. force from deploying to Darfur. ()
Full Text: http://www.voanews.com/english/2006-09-29-voa5.cfm
2) NEW LAWS HIT PUBLIC FUNDS' INVESTMENT IN SUDAN HOLDINGS
McClatchy-Tribune Business News
26 September 2006 Tuesday
Students reveled Monday in a major victory for their divestment movement as Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed two bills requiring California's public pension funds to shed Sudan-related holdings.
The bills, seen as inspiration for a burgeoning national divestment campaign, will also trigger a University of California plan to start divesting in nine multinational energy and engineering companies doing business in the war-torn African country.
() Six weeks before the Nov. 7 election, it was Schwarzenegger who stood Monday beneath a "Fighting Genocide" banner with Hollywood actor-activists George Clooney and Don Cheadle, and state NAACP President Alice Huffman.
() Angelides issued a statement: "Californians have a moral responsibility to help end the genocide in Sudan . "Among the targeted businesses are Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. of India, an energy pipeline and power generating engineering company; China Petroleum and Chemical Corp.; Oil & Natural Gas Co. of India; PetroChina Co., a publicly traded subsidiary of China National Petroleum Corp.; and Tatneft OAO, a Russian oil company. ()
Assembly Bill 2941, carried by Assemblyman Paul Koretz, D-Hollywood, requires that CalPERS and CalSTRS meet with corporate executives whose operations are generating revenue for the Khartoum government or show complicity in the Darfur crisis. If companies refuse to cooperate or pull out of Sudan , the funds would start selling off their holdings.--Assembly Bill 2179, by Assemblyman Tim Leslie, R-Tahoe City, supplies the legal underpinning for UC to carry out its plan to end investments in nine energy and engineering companies that invest in Sudan .