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9 October 2006
Responsibility to Protect Engaging Civil Society
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Special Edition:

[Ban Ki-Moon and R2P]

After heading the UN for two five-year terms, Kofi Annan is due to step down on December 31st. South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-moon was nominated by the UN Security Council as the successor to Kofi Annan on Monday October 9th. His six rivals have all withdrawn from the race since Bans decisive win in last Mondays poll, when he was backed by 14 of the 15 council members, including all five veto-wielding permanent members Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States.

In line with the UN Charter, the Security Council is to recommend the 62-year-old Ban to the 192-member General Assembly, which will then formally elect him, most likely later this month. The General Assembly has never before rejected such a recommendation.

The following excerpts trace references to the esponsibility to Protect norm within Ban Ki-Moons discourses, and more generally with the role of the next Secretary General. Indeed, the principle itself might be Kofi Annan's most important legacy to the UN.
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I. R2P in Ban Ki-Moon Discourse


1) SOUTH KOREAN PROPOSED AS NEW UN CHIEF
2) UN: CAREER DIPLOMAT SET TO BE NEXT SECRETARY-GENERAL
3) CONTENDER FOR TOP UN JOB SAYS HE CAN HEAL ITS RIFT WITH US
4) SOUTH KOREAN FM MOVES TO CEMENT LEAD IN RACE FOR UN CHIEF
5) RESTORING THE VITALITY OF THE UNITED NATIONS
6) EXCEPTS FROM BAN KI-MOON AT GENERAL DEBATE

II. R2P in the role of Secretary-General

1) FROM ANNAN TO BAN, A KOREAN SURPRISE
2) NEW SECRETARY GENERAL MUST LEAD ON HUMAN RIGHTS
3) MEDIAWATCH


I. R2P in Ban Ki-Moon Discourse


1) SOUTH KOREAN PROPOSED AS NEW UN CHIEF
BBC
9 October 2006
() Challenges for Ban Ki-Moon
Correspondents say he will take on an organisation at the centre of many of the world's most intractable problems, from Lebanon to Sudan.
If Mr Annan is unable to solve the problems in Sudan's troubled Darfur region in the next few months, this will be top of the agenda. International policy on Iran's nuclear programme will also figure prominently.
A key issue has been the UN's commitment to the responsibility to protect civilians in strife-torn countries.
He will need to carry out the sweeping reforms that most agree are badly needed for the world body, which has been hit by accusations of waste, mismanagement and the Iraq oil-for-food scandal.
Full text: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6034305.stm

2) UN: CAREER DIPLOMAT SET TO BE NEXT SECRETARY-GENERAL
Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty
8 October 2006

() Ian Williams, UN correspondent for "The Nation" magazine and editor of "The Congressional Quarterly Guide to the UN," says that it is exactly Ban's skill at finding compromises in tough cases that may win him support from the big players.

"You find that the great powers on the Security Council often pick people because they think they're low-key and will do what they are told," Williams says. "But, of course, actual possession of the office changes people's mind and they feel that they have strong stands to take. Ban Ki-moon has expressed strong support for things like the responsibility to protect the International Criminal Court, which is not exactly music to the ears of either China, or the U.S., or [U.S. Ambassador to the UN] John Bolton." ()

Full Text:
http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/10/db6b407d-2659-48f1-949d-df767b13af64.html

3) CONTENDER FOR TOP UN JOB SAYS HE CAN HEAL ITS RIFT WITH US
The News
3 October 2006

() South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-Moon, in a telephone interview with AFP, also stressed the need for the UN to promote global development and protect victims of crimes against humanity. ()

Ban also urged strong action to protect communities threatened by genocide. hen a country is not able to protect its own people from crimes against humanity and genocide and prevents the international community from intervening on the excuse of sovereignty, the international community has a responsibility to protect those people from genocide, he said. ()

He said the Sudanese government must accept the Security Council resolution to deploy a peacekeeping mission in its Darfur region. ts very frustrating that the Sudanese government leaders oppose the deployment of blue helmets. I hope Security Council members take more resolute action on this matter. ()

Full text: http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=26802

4) SOUTH KOREAN FM MOVES TO CEMENT LEAD IN RACE FOR UN CHIEF
AFP
27 September 2006

() South Korea 's foreign minister sought to cement his front-runner status in the race to succeed Kofi Annan as UN chief, vowing that if elected he would try to make the world body leaner and more efficient. ()

()Ban also vowed to speak out in favour of the "responsibility to protect" - a vow of collective action made by world leaders last year to stop "genocide, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity."

Full Text:

link
5) RESTORING THE VITALITY OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Council on Foreign Relations
31 May 2006

Speech by Ban Ki-Moon at the Council on Foreign Affairs:
()The moral authority of the United Nations depends on its ability to help people most in need, and it must do so with the highest ethical standards and professionalism.
On the immediate case in question, it is a humanitarian crisis in Darfur. There the enormity of human tragedy demands effective and expeditious U.N. intervention. Before coming to New York yesterday, I went to Rwanda, the site of an atrocious genocide 12 years ago. I was horrified and very saddened. It was a solemn reminder of what we, the international organization of the United Nations, the international community, failed to do for Africa, for humanity. Greater political will must be mobilized to ensure that the tragic failure to protect innocent people should not happen again.
In the years ago, the concept of the international communitys responsibility to protect, as endorsed by the World Summit last year, should be further substantiated. ()
Full text: http://www.cfr.org/publication/10833/

6) EXCEPTS FROM BAN KI-MOON AT GENERAL DEBATE
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
18 September, 2005

Statement by H.E. Ban Ki-moon Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Republic of Korea at the General Debate of the 60th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations on 18 September 2005.
() The Security Council must exercise only with the utmost prudence its prerogative to sanction the use of force. In this regard, we should build upon the agreements reflected in the Outcome Document towards the establishment of principles for the use of force that would lead to strengthened relevance and efficiency of the Security Council and of the collective security system embodied in the UN as a whole. ()
Respect for human rights and the rule of law are indispensable for the preservation of peace and cooperation among nations. Mass killings, genocides and other grave infringements on human rights are threats to peace and stability, and must not be left to pass with impunity. The principle of the responsibility to protect, as discussed during the High-Level Plenary, underscores the responsibility of the international community to lend assistance to states in upholding their solemn obligations to protect their citizens. We support the continued deliberation by Member States to reach agreement on the responsibility to protect. This would certainly form the backbone of a preventive mechanism against gross violations of human rights. ()
Full Text:
http://www.mofat.go.kr/me/me_a002/me_b006/1190711_980.html

II. R2P in the role of Secretary-General


1) FROM ANNAN TO BAN, A KOREAN SURPRISE
Ascribe Newswire
By Jeffrey Laurenti, The Century Foundation
6 October 2006

() Ban is not an accomplished public speaker. He succeeds a secretary-general whose most extraordinary accomplishment has been to marshal the support of world publics for the moral vision of the UN Charter.

In so doing, Annan has raised the bar for public expectations of the secretary-general. He has commanded media attention to give voice to the shared aspirations of much of world opinion -- on human rights, on the responsibility to protect endangered populations, on nuclear disarmament, on international justice. ()
Full Text: http://www.tcf.org/list.asp?type=NC&pubid=1409
2) NEW SECRETARY GENERAL MUST LEAD ON HUMAN RIGHTS
Human Rights Watch via BBSNews
4 October 2006
() As an outspoken advocate for victims of human rights, Annan pressed governments to live up to the UN Charter's commitment to human rights for all. He recognized that while quiet diplomacy and technical assistance have their place, some situations are so urgent and some governments so unresponsive that public pressure must be brought to bear by the Secretary-General.
The incoming Secretary-General must be similarly willing to take on those responsible for human rights abuses and to push the UN system to be stronger in the defense of human rights and civil society. To demonstrate the universal basis of human rights, he must be willing to speak out even when the offender is a powerful government, Human Rights Watch said.
() As the crisis in Darfur continues, it is clear that the next Secretary-General will be judged in important part by his ability to make the "responsibility to protect" people from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity a reality. World leaders agreed to this principle at last year's summit, but the deteriorating situation in Darfur illustrates the gap between stating a principle and having the political will and resources to act upon it. Ban's challenge will be to close that gap. ()
Full Text : http://bbsnews.net/article.php/20061004200434592
3) MEDIAWATCH
The Guardian
9 October 2006
()Mr Annan's tenure was marked by the 9/11 attacks and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. He barely escaped censure over the oil-for-food scandal that emerged from the UN sanctions regime. The reform programme he launched has a long way to go. He cannot point to much progress on Darfur, Palestine or dealing with the nuclear ambitions of Iran and North Korea. Critics saw him as too much of a UN careerist. But he did acquire authority and promoted initiatives for humanitarian intervention and the UN's 'responsibility to protect'. Mr Ban, by contrast, is praised for his quiet skills in mediation and consensus-building. Even his admirers do not claim he has charisma or big ideas. He describes himself as a 'harmoniser'. ()
South Korea's SG will be the eighth 'secular pope' pursuing the loftiest ideals in a world of rivalries and profound inequalities -- doing what Mr Annan called 'the most impossible job'. Mr Ban is starting out with unusually low expectations of what he will be able to achieve. It is only right to hope that he is able to prove the sceptics wrong.
Full text : http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=27689
 

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