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International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect
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22 March 2007
Responsibility to Protect Engaging Civil Society
Web: www.responsibilitytoprotect.org
Email: [email protected] .org

In this issue: [R2P discussed by US-UN ambassador nominee and in resolution on UNEPS; R2P and Darfur, Zimbabwe]


I. R2P in the United States

1. UN AMBASSADOR NOMINATION;

2. EXPERTS DISCUSS U.S. PERSPECTIVES ON FOREIGN POLICY

3. UNEPS RESOLUTION IN THE U.S. CONGRESS

II. R2P and Darfur

1. TIME FOR ACTION

2. THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT HAS BECOME EVIDENT AND URGENT

3. NOBEL PEACE LAUREATE REJECTS ATTEMPTS TO KILL DARFUR REPORT IN U.N. RIGHTS COUNCIL

4. NEW U.N. CHIEF MUST TAKE ACTION AGAINST DARFUR GENOCIDE


III. R2P and Zimbabwe


1.EXILE URGES CANADA TO PRESSURE MUGABE


2. U.N. AMBASSADOR NOMINATION
CQ Congressional Testimony
16 March 2007


Statement of Zalmay Khalilzad To be Representative, United Nations
Committee on Senate Foreign Relations
March 15, 2007



Mr. Chairman, and distinguished members of the Committee, it is a great honor to come before you as the President's nominee to serve as the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations. I want to thank the President for his confidence in nominating me for this mission.



()In light of this record, I agree with the view of the Gingrich-Mitchell report that an effective United Nations is in America's interest. As one of the principal architects of the United Nations, the United States placed at the foundation of the U.N. certain fundamental purposes and values - preserving peace, promoting progress, and advocacy of human rights. It is therefore vital for the United States to enable this institution to make the greatest possible contribution to advance those founding objectives.



()Though events will drive a good deal of the work of the United Nations, I will place priority on several political and security issues:



-- Ending the massive humanitarian crisis in Darfur in order not only to save the lives of innocents but also to fulfill the commitment of the United States and the international community to a "responsibility to protect" peoples from large-scale atrocities and genocide.()



Full text not available.



3. EXPERTS DISCUSS U.S. PERSPECTIVES ON FOREIGN POLICY
USINFO Webchat transcript
14 March 2007


Mark Lagon, deputy assistant secretary of state for international organizations affairs, and David Shorr, program officer in policy analysis and dialogue at the Stanley Foundation, answered questions about how Americans of different political perspectives can -- and do -- contribute to U.S. foreign policy development. He references 2P several times throughout the interview.



() Q [Ali Eid]: [Should we redefine] the concept of security from nuclear security to human security in the 21st century? Ali eid



A [Mark Lagon]: I'm a political scientist, academics and international affairs observers more generally get into terminological debates about what is "security." I'm not sure it is such a productive debate. We just need to agree that things that are not traditionally seen as part of security are essential to it. Market-based economic prosperity, investing in people (in education and public health and the like), and what the U.N. Charter calls "fundamental freedoms" are important to creating a more peaceful world. A more important definitional question has been about sovereignty. Sovereignty is not just a right but a responsibility. That's why the U.N. has been slowly but surely embracing the notion of the "Responsibility to Protect" endorsed by heads of state in the September 2005 World Summit outcome document.



The concept is that a government must protect its people from humanitarian calamities and bloodletting, and if it doesn't face up to that responsibility, the international community should address it. That is why President Bush is the world's leading advocate for getting U.N. peacekeepers into Darfur despite the Sudanese government's resistance. ()


Full text available at:
http://usinfo.state.gov/usinfo/Archive/2007/Mar/19-196528.html



4. UNEPS RESOLUTION IN THE U.S. CONGRESS
H. RES 213
5 March 2007


The following is an excerpt from a resolution introduced in the United States House of Representatives in support of a United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS). It was submitted by Congressman Wynn of New York on behalf of Congressmen Conyers, Payne, Walsh, Frank and Blumenauer and was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. There are several notable references to 2P.



RESOLUTION



Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that a United Nations Emergency Peace Service capable of intervening in the early stages of a humanitarian crisis could save millions of lives, billions of dollars, and is in the interests of the United States.



()Whereas, at the September 2005 World Summit, the Member States of the United Nations declared that the international community has a responsibility to protect these populations when countries are unable or unwilling to prevent genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity;



Whereas, at the 2005 World Summit, over 150 heads of state signed a document which the United Nations General Assembly adopted, declaring that `we are prepared to take collective action, in a timely and decisive manner, through the Security Council ... should peaceful means be inadequate and national authorities manifestly fail to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity.';



() Whereas, if ongoing ethnic and sectarian mass killings and crimes against humanity continue to occur in Iraq and if the Iraqi Government does not have the capacity to protect its citizens from these crimes, then all members of the international community, should, through the United Nations, exercise their mutual responsibility to protect the citizens of Iraq;



()(1) the United States should use its voice, vote, and influence at the United Nations to facilitate and support the creation of a United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS); ()



Full text available at:
http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=hr110-213

II. R2P and Darfur



1. TIME FOR ACTION
By Ben Fine and Josh Scheinert
National Post
22 March 2007



The ongoing crisis in Sudan's Darfur region raises a profound question: How does the world community respond to the spectre of genocide? One Canadian group -- STAND Canada (Students Taking Action Now: Darfur) -- believes it is time for Ottawa to take a leadership role in addressing Khartoum's crimes against humanity. STAND has asked a selection of prominent Canadian leaders to write in support of the group's mission. In a feature beginning today, Saving Darfur, the National Post will print their essays, with future entries appearing on Tuesdays and Thursdays. In today's first installment, STAND's directors explain why they believe their cause is so important.



()Canadian action on Darfur should be inspired by the same values that led this country to champion peacekeeping in the mid-20th century and, later, the Responsibility to Protect doctrine, which requires humanitarian intervention in just such cases.



Canada must lead international efforts to resolve the crisis. Our leadership must be directed at creating an environment in which UN Resolution 1706 can be implemented and enforced. 1706 lays out the most comprehensive plan for civilian protection and building a negotiated political settlement in Darfur.



First, we must take the reins of global diplomacy. Our government should lead a group of foreign ministers to help jump-start international action on Darfur. Its objectives would be twofold. First, it would focus global diplomacy on building the political environment required for instituting a robust international protection force to replace the current African Union mission. Second, it would sustain the long-term international commitment to bring the parties to a political settlement in Darfur.



Militarily, Canada has the capacity to lead enforcement of a no-fly zone in Darfur that can prevent Sudan's air force from continuing its indiscriminate bombings of civilian villages. A rotation of 12-18 CF-18 Hornet aircraft could enforce the no-fly zone and save thousands of lives.



We must continue increasing our aid and encouraging other nations to do the same. Those Darfuris not felled by the bullets and machetes of the Janjaweed and rebel militia are at risk of dying from hunger. International donor fatigue has forced the World Food Programme to predict a shortfall of hundreds of millions of dollars in funds for Darfur. We are a nation with deep pockets; we must dig deeper.



Over the next few weeks, our message will be echoed by those of prominent Canadians who share our viewpoint. The authors all share one thing in common: They believe that as a beacon of peace and freedom we have a responsibility to protect the people of Darfur. It is a responsibility we must not shirk. ()



Full text available at:
http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/news/issuesideas/story.html?id=b9eae28a-5f31-4e42-a103-fab19a7b2cfe



2. 'THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT HAS BECOME EVIDENT AND URGENT'
The Ottawa Citizen
18 March 2007



A UN human rights team criticized the international community last Monday for failing to halt atrocities in Darfur, saying in a sharply worded report that the United Nations must act now to protect civilians from a violence campaign orchestrated by Sudan's government.



The panel, headed by Nobel peace laureate Jody Williams, departed from the usual diplomatic niceties of UN reports to accuse major nations of letting Sudan obstruct efforts to quell ethnic fighting that has killed 200,000 people and displaced 2.5 million in four years.



The report urged quick UN Security Council intervention, the imposition of sanctions and criminal prosecutions of those responsible for atrocities and other abuses.



Here is an excerpt from the conclusion of the report:



()"The mission further concludes that the Government of the Sudan has manifestly failed to protect the population of Darfur from large-scale international crimes, and has itself orchestrated and participated in these crimes. As such, the solemn obligation of the international community to exercise its responsibility to protect has become evident and urgent." ()


Full text available at:


http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/citizensweekly/story.html?id=5fab53db-e14e-4b4e-a248-23213b077636




3. NOBEL PEACE LAUREATE REJECTS ATTEMPTS TO KILL DARFUR REPORT IN U.N. RIGHTS COUNCIL
By Eliane Engeler
Associated Press Worldstream
16 March 2007



Nobel Peace Prize winner Jody Williams on Friday rejected attempts by Muslim, African and other countries to kill her team's report on alleged abuses in Darfur, saying the U.N. Human Rights Council cannot ignore the atrocities committed in the region without further undermining its credibility.


The United Nations must act to protect the people in Darfur from atrocities that include killings, rape and torture, Williams told the 47-nation council when presenting the report drawn up by a team of experts under her lead.


"Responsibility to protect is meant to protect civilians not abusive governments," Williams said.


()In the most explicit of a long series of reports submitted by rights experts to the world body over the past four years, the team called for U.N. Security Council intervention, sanctions and criminal prosecutions in Darfur, where more than 200,000 people have died and 2.5 million have been displaced by four years of fighting.()


Full text not available.



4. NEW U.N. CHIEF MUST TAKE ACTION AGAINST DARFUR GENOCIDE
By Richard S. Williamson
Chicago Sun Times
6 March 2007



The top priority for the new U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon should be to end the killing in Darfur.



()Responsibility for these problems is widespread. The member states and the U.N. Secretariat should work to improve management, machinery and mission. Ban is right to seek the best people and to explore ways to improve the performance of U.N. peacekeeping and political affairs. But the vitality of the U.N. will not be recaptured through modest reforms nor incremental progress.



Bold leadership reaffirming the hopes and promise of the U.N. ideal is required.



The U.N. was founded as a mechanism for collective security to maintain peace. It was grounded in human rights values. To regain its luster and warrant the broad support it requires, the U.N. must advance these aspirations. And nowhere are human rights more violated and the inadequacy of peacekeeping more evident than in Darfur, the world's worst humanitarian crisis.



()Where is our humanity? What is our responsibility to protect? Why has greed, corruption and caution overcome the moral imperative to stop the savagery? Can anything be done?



()The U.N. secretary-general is uniquely situated to challenge these impediments. New to his position, Ban is not encumbered by past scandals, compromises, and offenses. He can draw on member states' broad desire that he succeed.



Ban can relentlessly shine a light on this crisis. He can pressure Khartoum. He can use his good offices to facilitate negotiations. He can offer practical action plans. He can use his platform to prod, and if need be drag, the Security Council to confront the issue.



Ban can increase the political cost for countries whose avarice or group loyalty now trump their responsibility to protect.



Chicago lawyer Richard S. Williamson is a former U.S. ambassador at the U.N.



Full text available at:
http://www.suntimes.com/news/otherviews/284052,CST-EDT-REF06.articleprint





III. R2P and Zimbabwe


1. EXILE URGES CANADA TO PRESSURE MUGABE
By Gabriel Shumba
The Calgary Herald
22 March 2007


The brutal attacks against leading opponents of President Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe in the past two weeks have once again united the international community in vocal condemnation of his regime's excesses.


()There is much Canada can do:


()- Canada must work with its friends and allies on the United Nations Security Council to see Zimbabwe finally addressed as the threat to regional security that it has become. The Responsibility to Protect, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2005, should be invoked in response to the rampant crimes against humanity occurring in Zimbabwe. ()
Full text not available.

 

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