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2 August 2007
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Special Edition: [Security Council Unanimously Adopts Resolution 1769 on Sudan, Authorizing Deployment of UN-AU Force in Darfur; Reactions to the Resolution]


SECURITY COUNCIL UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTS RESOLUTION 1769, AUTHORIZING DEPLOYMENT OF UN-AU FORCE IN DARFUR

On 31 July 2007, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1769 authorizing the deployment of a 26,000-strong United Nations-African Union force to Sudans western Darfur region. The joint force is to be called the United Nations- African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and is authorized for an initial period of 12 months, pending extension at a later date. In Part 15a (ii), the resolution invokes Chapter 7 to authorize UNAMIDs use of force to protect civilians.

While Resolution 1769 maintains the sovereignty of the Government of Sudan, it also endorses Resolution 1674 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, which reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.

UNAMID will have up to 19,555 military personnel and up to 3,772 international police and 2,660 special police officers. Resolution 1769 calls for UN Member States to contribute troops within 30 days from its adoption and for UNAMID to have initial operational capacity by October 2007. The resolution also calls for UNAMID to assume authority from the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) no later than 31 December 2007.

Security Council Resolution 1769 is available at:
http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/sc9089.doc.htm


I. Reactions to Security Council Resolution 1769
1. US LAWMAKERS SAY UN RESOLUTION ON DARFUR DOES NOT GO FAR ENOUGH
2. NO TIME TO TAKE THE PRESSURE OFF: A PROPOSED UN FORCE FOR DARFUR
3. HYBRID DARFUR FORCE WILL HELP PROTECT LIVES OF WOMEN, SAYS UN INSTITUTE CHIEF


1. US LAWMAKERS SAY UN RESOLUTION ON DARFUR DOES NOT GO FAR ENOUGH
The Associated Press
31 July 2007

Three U.S. senators criticized the U.N. Security Council on Tuesday for weakening a resolution to establish a 26,000-strong peacekeeping force for Sudan's ravaged Darfur region.

The resolution, which the Security Council approved Tuesday, removed harsh language in an effort to pick up votes.

Speaking before the U.N. action, Democratic Sen. Russ Feingold, who chairs the Senate Foreign Relations subcommittee on Africa, called it "welcome and overdue" that the Security Council was prepared to pass a resolution that would send a peacekeeping mission to protect the people of Darfur, where more than 200,000 people have died and 2.5 million have been displaced since 2003.

He added: "I am very disappointed that the resolution's co-sponsors have succumbed to pressure from the Sudanese government" and removed the threat of sanctions. One item deleted was the Chapter 7 clause, which deals with threats to international peace and can be militarily enforced.

()Feingold said he understood the need for diplomatic compromise, but said the resolution has been "unacceptably weakened." He said that under the resolution, the Sudanese government would evade its requirements without consequences.

"Should that happen, the toll of the genocide in Darfur will continue to mount, in lives lost and persons displaced and fundamental human values that the international community has failed to uphold," he said.

Democratic Sen. Dick Durbin said he has spoken with U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as well as ambassadors from nations on the Security Council about the need for a strong resolution.

"It's the first time I've ever picked up the phone to call ambassadors from other countries about a vote in the United Nations Security Council, but I think it's that important," he said.

"Today's action by the U.N. is a start, but it is only a start," Durbin said. "There is more to be done, and it needs to be done now."

Full text available at:
http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/07/31/america/NA-GEN-US-Senators-Darfur.php


2. NO TIME TO TAKE THE PRESSURE OFF: A PROPOSED UN FORCE FOR DARFUR
The Economist
2 August 2007

()The passing of a United Nations resolution on Tuesday July 31st to deploy up to 26,000 troops and police in Darfur is a welcome breakthrough in trying to end the conflict there. The UN, led on the Security Council by America, Britain and France, has been pushing an extremely reluctant Sudanese government into accepting such a force for over a year, so it is a victory for relentless and concerted diplomatic pressure.

It is the Chinese, however, who have really made this possible. As the buyer of most of Sudans oil, China has always been the key to imposing real pressure on the murdering government in Khartoum. For years it did nothing, reasoning that the best way to protect its commercial interests was to indulge the wishes of the regime in Khartoum at almost every turn. But in the past few months the message from Beijing has changed. The Chinese seem increasingly to have accepted some of the moral and political responsibilities that come with their new economic clout. And, with threats of boycotts over Darfur ringing in their ears, they might also have had the 2008 Beijing Olympics in mind when they voted for the resolution.

This Chinese about-turn is extremely welcome. However, a paper resolution passed in New York will not on it own bring a solution to Darfurs problems any nearer. In many ways, the really difficult work starts now. For a start, the UN needs to find the troops and police for the mission, which when it gets up to full strength will be the biggest of its kind in the world.

Sudan insists that most of them should be African, but the impoverished African Union (AU) is finding it hard at the moment to raise just 8,000 troops for a peacekeeping mission in Somalia. () If this force is to become a reality, therefore, there will have to be a step-change in African attitudes towards policing its own continent, backed by quite a lot more money from the West as well. Eventually, the Sudanese will also probably have to allow in troops from Asia and other parts of the world too.

Vigilance will also be needed as the Sudanese government is sure to try and pick away at the detail of the resolution to hinder an effective deployment as much as it can.

()The outside world needs to prevent that, and also ensure that any build-up in Darfur does not diminish the separate mission in the south, where an uneasy peace agreement is still holding. Keeping calm in the south, which emerged from decades of war with Khartoum only in 2005, is just as important a humanitarian imperative as pacifying Darfur.

Then there is the business of brokering a peace deal in Darfur itself. Since the latest attempt failed last year, the rebel groups have splintered into ever more rancorous and undisciplined factions, making the job even harder. In Tanzania on August 3rd diplomats are set to try again. Here too, pressure must be brought from foreign governments, particularly the West, to form more coherent negotiating blocks if any agreement with the Sudanese government is to stick. Only then will the wretched survivors of the worlds worst humanitarian disaster be able to contemplate an end to their nightmare.

Full text available at:
http://www.economist.com/daily/news/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9573817&top_story=1


3. HYBRID DARFUR FORCE WILL HELP PROTECT LIVES OF WOMEN, SAYS UN INSTITUTE CHIEF
UN News Centre
1 August 2007

The newly authorized hybrid United Nations-African Union peacekeeping force in Darfur can serve as a major step towards saving the lives of vulnerable women and girls in the violence-wracked Sudanese region, the head of a UN womens institute said today.

Carmen Moreno, Director of the UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW), said yesterdays Security Council resolution setting up the force as provided an opportunity to put an end to violence against civilians, especially women, who are in danger.r
Ms. Moreno called on the new peacekeeping operation, to be known as UNAMID, to treat the protection of Darfurs women as a priority.

raining troops and police on gender issues before and during their field deployment will strengthen their ability to prevent the atrocities committed against women, she said. iolence against women can only be tackled from a gender perspective.r
UNAMID is the first hybrid force involving the UN and will become the largest peacekeeping force in the world, with an eventual force of nearly 26,000 troops and police officers.

()Ms. Moreno said that rape was being used as a weapon of war, with women and girls some as young as eight years old at risk every day, even when living in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) or refugees.

She added that women are estimated to represent more than two-thirds of the IDPs scattered across Darfur and the refugees who have fled to neighbouring Chad or the Central African Republic (CAR).

Full text available at:
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=23388&Cr=&Cr1=
 

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