Women, Peace, and Security and the Responsibility to Protect
In light of the upcoming 15th anniversary of the adoption of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda, the ICRtoP's latest publication examines how WPS and the Responsibility to Protect can be mainstreamed together in order to achieve a better, more holistic protection of populations.
Click here to read the document. For more education tools from the ICRtoP, visit our publications page.
In New York, a coalition of Muslim groups filed a suit against Burmese president, Thein Sein, along with other government officials, for alleged crimes against the Rohingya minority, which they say constitutes genocide. The groups filed the suit under the “US Alien Tort Statute”, which has been used in the past by foreign citizens seeking damages from human rights violations committed outside the United States.
Physicians for Human Rights reported evidence that the government had forcibly displaced over 8,000 people to make room for new dam projects in Shan State. Amnesty International, meanwhile, reported that nearly100 prisoners of conscience following increased repression.
A series of attacks killed at least eight in Bujumbura over the weekend. Local residents stated that police were behind the killings and had been accompanied by unarmed members of the ruling CNDD-FDD party’s youth wing, Imbonerakure, who stole items from houses.
Accused of destabilizing the country, Burundi has expelled a Rwandan diplomat, in another sign of increased tension between the two neighboring states.
Central African Republic:
Interim President Catherine Samba-Panza requested a “tougher” mandate for MINUSCA, while also calling for the disarmament of militias and rebels after more than 40 were killed in Bangui. The recent uptick in violence has increased the flow of refugees to the DRC. UNHCR and the World Food Programme have both voiced concern at their ability to support the new wave of refugees due to a funding shortfall.
Democratic Republic of the Congo:
Human Rights Watch reported that senior security force and ruling party officials in DRC have allegedly hired thugs to assault peaceful political demonstrators in Kinshasa, where more than a dozen were injured. The assailants include members of the “youth league” of Kabila’s People’s Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD), intelligence agents from the National Intelligence Agency (Agence Nationale de Renseignements, ANR), police officers, and soldiers, all wearing plain clothes.
Israeli fighter jets launched airstrikes on targets in Gaza overnight on Sunday, in response to alleged rocket fire emanating from the Gaza strip, amid intensified violence in East Jerusalem and the West Bank, where two Israelis were stabbed to death and a Palestinian man was killed in a clash with Israeli soldiers.
Ahead of the presidential election on 10 October, fighting between rival political groups injured dozens. The fighters belonged to the Rally of the Guinean People (RPG) and the Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea (UFDG). In a statement, the EU called the situation "extremely tense" and urged actors to refrain from violence.
Two suicide bombings killed at least 18 in Shiite-dominated areas of Baghdad on Saturday. Meanwhile, a series of car bombings killed at least 63 in Khalis, al-Zubair, and Baghdad. The UN reported that terrorist and other violent acts had killed 717 and injured 1,216 in September alone. The Islamic State of the Levant (ISIL, also known as Islamic State or ISIS), executed 70 members of a Sunni tribe in Khanizir.
In a new report, OCHA reported that “armed conflict and political instability has impacted over 3 million people across Libya”, who need protection and humanitarian aid. Over the weekend, the Arab League called on the parties in Libya to commit to a ceasefire and cease all military operations in order to agree on a national unity government. Libya’s internationally-recognized parliament voted to extend its own mandate beyond the end of its mandated term on 20 October. The parliament is still undecided over whether to accept the UN-backed draft agreement.
In a step that parties hope will restore confidence in the peace accord, Mali’s government released 20 separatist rebels in exchange for 16 soldiers. During a briefing to the Security Council, Mongi Hamdi, Head of MINUSMA, noted that the peace accord was indeed back on track, but that full implementation remained impeded by obstacles. Indeed, the day after his briefing, Tuareg separatists allegedly kidnapped four near Gao whose family members were believed to be Tuaregs aligned with the government.
Five children carried out suicide bombings at a mosque and the house of a vigilante leader in Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria, killing fifteen people and injuring 35. Militants claiming loyalty to ISIL claimed responsibility for suicide bombings last week in Abuja that killed at least 15. The Nigerian Union of Teachers announced that Boko Haram has killed 600 Nigerian teachers and displaced another 19,000. Suicide bombings, which included explosions in two mosques, killed a minimum of 40 people. Boko Haram attacked a military camp in Yobe state on Wednesday, but were eventually restrained by the military.
The head of the Red Cross in South Sudan announced that women have suffered “unprecendented levels of sexual violence” over the last two years, including “abduction, rape, forced marriage, and murder.” OCHA and other aid agencies, including MSF, reported an increase in conflict since spring in South Sudan, particularly in Koch and Leer countries, which has caused aid agencies after the looting of their premises.
The SPLM-In Opposition (SPLM-IO) stated its wish for UNMISS’s mandate to be extended another three years until free and fair elections and the safety of civilians are assured.
Bypassing the parliament, President Kiir announced a decentralization plan which would increase the number of states from the current 10 to 28, in a move immediately denounced by the SPLM-IO as a violation of the peace agreement. The “troika” (the U.S., the U.K., and Norway) released a joint statement detailing their concern over the impact of the plan on the security situation. South Sudan responded that it would not change the plan, despite international pressure.
The opposition accused government forces of carrying out fresh aerial and ground attacks on civilians believed to be aligned with Machar. IGAD reported that the warring sides have committed 53 violations of ceasefire agreements in 19 months.
During his meetings during the General Assembly, Sudan’s foreign minister reiterated his government’s commitment to the departure of UNAMID. South Africa asked the ICC for more time to explain why it failed to arrest Sudanese President Bashir, wanted by the ICC, during Bashir's visit to South Africa this summer. As a ratifier of the Rome Statute of the ICC, South Sudan is obliged to implement ICC arrest warrants.
ISIL militants in northern Syria destroyed the almost 2,000-year old ‘Arch of Triumph’ in the ancient city of Palmyra, according to officials and local sources. It is the latest in a series of destructions of monuments at the UNESCO heritage site by the Islamist militant group.
NATO called on Russia to halt air strikes on Syrian opposition forces and civilians. Despite evidence that it has targeted Assad opponents, Russia maintains that its air strikes are only targeting ISIL militants. On Wednesday, Russia and Syria embarked on a joint campaign by land, sea, and air against rebel groups in an attempt to reverse opposition gains along Syria’s coast. In total, Russia has already launched over 100 airstrikes.
Yemeni Prime Minister Khaled Baha escaped an attack on his hotel in Aden, though 15 soldiers from the United Arab Emirates were killed. The UAE blamed Houthi rebels for the attack, although ISIL has claimed responsibility.
An airstrike in Dhamar province killed 23 people attending a wedding. The Saudi-led coalition denied responsibility for the attack.
In a new report, Amnesty International highlighted new evidence of war crimes committed by the Saudi-led coalition, which underscores both the need for an independent investigation and the suspension of some arms transfers.
Houthi rebels, together with former President Saleh’s political party, announced their willingness to join talks on a seven-point peace plan proposed by the UN. The so-called “Muscat principles” include a ceasefire, the return of the government to the capital, Sana’a, and the removal of armed militias from Yemeni cities. The Houthis criticized President Hadi’s failure to reciprocate such a step. Hadi, meanwhile, insists that Houthis pull out of territory gained during the conflict before an agreement is possible.
What else is new?
The ICRtoP has released a new map detailing which states, as of 6 October, have endorsed the French/Mexico political declaration on the use of the veto and/or the "Code of Conduct regarding Security Council action on genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes." (The map will be updated each week.)
ICRtoP Member the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect released a new issue of "R2P Ideas in Brief" entitled "Strengthening State Resilience for the Prevention of Atrocity Crimes."
ICRtoP Member the Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect held their annual Gareth Evans lecture on "Preventing Conflicts, Mediating the End of Wars, Building Durable Peace", featuring H.E. Dr. Jose Ramos Horta.
The Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies, also an ICRtoP member, is holding an event on the "ISIS Crisis: Simulating Mass Atrocity Prevention in Syria" on 26 October. For details, click here.