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30 January 2008
Responsibility to Protect Engaging Civil Society
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In this issue:
[Crisis in Kenya, R2P in the News, US Presidential Candidates and R2P, Darfur and R2P, Related Reports]

I. Crisis in Kenya

II. R2P in the News

III. US Presidential Candidates and R2P

IV. Darfur and R2P

V. Related Reports: Darfur

I. Crisis in Kenya

1. Kenya Police Deny Shoot-To-Kill Order
30 January 2008

(...) Police spokesman Eric Kiraithe told CNN Wednesday his department had not issued a shoot-to-kill order but rather it had instructed officers "as much as possible to disable to effect detention" rather than kill.

(...) Kiraithe said that law enforcement received fresh instructions on when they can legally kill because the government wants to ensure the officers are neither accused of standing by or charged with homicide during violent confrontations.

(...) More than 860 people have been killed and more than 200,000 displaced in [the spasm of political violence that erupted soon after the December elections and crippled Kenya], the Red Cross said. (...)

The United States has said it will consider imposing sanctions against members of the Kenyan government and opposition figures who are instigating the violence.

Earlier Wednesday, an American diplomat has described the violence in Kenya's Rift Valley as "clear ethnic cleansing" aimed at chasing out members of the Kikuyu tribe who are loyal to President Kibaki.

However, U.S. envoy Jendayi Frazer said she did not believe the ethnic clashes that have brought Kenya to its knees following disputed elections last month could be classed as genocide.

The violence she saw this month while visiting the Rift Valley, where Luos people are fighting Kikuyus, "was clear ethnic cleansing," she told reporters at an African Union summit in Addis Ababa on Wednesday.

"The aim originally was not to kill, it was to cleanse, it was to push them out of the region," she said, according to The Associated Press.

Former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan on Tuesday pleaded with Kenya's government to take "extraordinary measures" to protect civilians hours after an opposition lawmaker was killed outside his home.

Full text:

2. UN Genocide Adviser Urges End to Violence in Kenya, Sends Staffer There
UN News Centre
28 January 2008

The United Nations Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide today called for an immediate halt to the destructive cycle of attacks and revenge attacks in Kenya, where post-electoral violence continues to claim lives, and announced plans to dispatch a staff member there.

Francis Deng urged national and local leaders on all sides to publicly call for an end to the violence and to statements inciting violence, UN spokesperson Marie Okabe told reporters in New York.

Mr. Deng is dispatching one of his staff members to Kenya as soon as possible to examine the situation, Ms. Okabe added.

Nearly 700 people are believed to have been killed in the violence, which first began a few weeks ago after Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner over opposition leader Raila Odinga in December elections. The crisis has also forced some 255,000 to flee their homes.

Noting that political and community leaders may be held accountable for violations of international law committed at their instigation, Mr. Deng urged them to meet their responsibility to protect the civilian population and prevent the violence.

The Special Adviser echoed High Commissioner for Human Rights Louise Arbour in calling on the Kenyan Government to abide by its international human rights obligations in responding to demonstrations, including holding police accountable for their actions.

Meanwhile, the UN country team reports that over the weekend, the World Food Programme (WFP) and its partners distributed one-week food rations to more than 30,000 people in six Nairobi slums. It also distributed two-week rations to nearly that many people in the Kisumu slums, and began its first distributions in Nakuru.

WFP also delivered seven metric tons of corn-soya blend and split peas to the Nyanza Provincial Hospital for supplementary feeding managed by the UN Childrens Fund (UNICEF).

The security situation continues to delay the delivery of aid, and WFP is working with the Government to ensure military escorts to provide safe passage for trucks carrying supplies.

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3. UN Genocide Adviser Warns Kenyan Politicians
Hindustan Times
29 January 2008

()Francis Deng, () according to a statement from UN headquarters in New York [said that] "political and community leaders may be held accountable for violations of international law committed at their instigation, Mr Deng urged them to meet their responsibility to protect the civilian population and prevent the violence," the statement said.

()U.N. aid agencies in Geneva said Tuesday that they were increasingly concerned about violence against women and children. "The state fails to live up to its task of protection," said a spokeswoman for the U.N.'s children fund who said people gathering in displacement camps were not spared from violence and aggression. In a displacement camp north of the Rift Valley, a group of around 20 women who said they had been raped, were hindered by locals from talking to UNICEF on Sunday, said Veronique Taveau. "A group of 15 young men intervened and warned the women that if they talk, they would again become the target of violence including their children," she said.

Taveau said, "What is happening in Kenya at the moment is a real humanitarian tragedy with a terrible impact on children and women."


II. R2P in the News

1. Justice in Darfur
New York Times
Jonathan F. Fanton
30 January 2008

Diplomatic Memo: Intervention, Hailed as a Concept, Is Shunned in Practice (January 20, 2008)

ntervention, Hailed as a Concept, Is Shunned in Practice (Diplomatic Memo, Jan. 20) rightly points out that Darfur is a test of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1674, which commits the nations of the world to intervene to protect civilians facing mass atrocities.

The MacArthur Foundation supports organizations that aim to make the responsibility to protect a universally applied norm, not just a noble aspiration. But intervention is only one element of the pursuit of justice.

The sad truth is the crisis in Darfur has persisted for so long and the atrocities have run so deep that accountability is just as important as intervention. Even if the nations of the world successfully intervene now, Darfur will not know lasting peace unless justice is brought to the people who perpetrated the crimes.

Last May, the International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants for Ahmad Haroun, a government minister, and Ali Kushayb, a leader of the janjaweed militias. Sudan has not turned the men over and has instead defied the international community by protecting Mr. Kushayb; promoting Mr. Haroun to humanitarian affairs minister; and recently appointing Musa Hilal, another notorious janjaweed leader, to be special adviser to the minister of federal affairs.

The United States, along with China, Russia and other members of the United Nation Security Council, should recommit themselves to the values that inspired the responsibility to protect, pressure Sudan to turn over Mr. Haroun and Mr. Kushayb, and see that justice is served in Darfur.

Note: The writer is president of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation


2. Rwanda: Ban Ki-Moon Says World Must Protect Civilians From Genocide
UN News Service
29 January 2008

United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited a Genocide Memorial in Rwanda today and told the country's Parliament that he will make good on international promises to protect civilians from mass atrocities.

(...) "Today, one of my priorities as Secretary-General is to translate the concept of our Responsibility to Protect from words to deeds, to ensure timely action so that populations do not face genocide, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity ever again," Mr. Ban told the Parliament.

Often referred to as R2P, the Responsibility to Protect doctrine was adopted by national leaders meeting at a UN summit in 2005 and holds that States must protect their own populations- and the international community must step in if they do not.

"It is imperative that we all work closely together to address the root causes of conflicts to ensure that the atrocities that took place here 14 years ago do not occur again, anywhere in the world," the Secretary-General said today.

(...) Speaking at the Genocide Memorial, Mr. Ban honoured the more than 800,000 people who lost their lives in 1994. The killing of Tutsis and moderate Hutus, mostly by machete or club, swept Rwanda in less than 100 days starting in early April of that year.

"This genocide here will haunt the United Nations, and the international community, for generations to come," said Mr. Ban.

"This memorial was built so all of us may learn and remember the worst that humankind can do. Let us resolve to build a global architecture to uphold the best humankind can do. I will do all I can to advance that mission," he pledged.

Full text:

To follow the text of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's remarks to the press at the Rwanda Genocide Memorial in Kigali on 29 January please visit:

3. Sovereignty Implies Responsibility to Protect Citizens - UN's Deng
28 January 2008

"[T]he idea of "R2P" was principally meant to stress that sovereignty implies the responsibility of states, first and foremost, to protect their own citizens, with the international community providing support when governments prove incapable of doing so," said Francis Deng, United Nation's Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide and other Mass Atrocities, in the Winter 2007 Bulletin of UN's Department of Political Affairs.

(...) Deng told the publication in an interview that he feels too much emphasis is being placed in the public debate on the ast resort of military intervention one he would apply only in cases of bysmal failure by states to protect their own people.

y sense is that except for very weak states or failed states, states that have collapsed and there is a vacuum to be filled, you have two obstacles to overcome. The resistance of governments and the reluctance of international actors to send in their young people to fight, Deng explains, citing East Timor, Kosovo, Sierra Leone and Somalia as rare examples in which the international community was able to get in.

[Deng says] he has been reaching out to NGOs, viewing them as important allies. He has sought to explain his approach on sovereignty as esponsibility with international cooperation and also to provide assurances that he will be willing to speak out publicly when necessary. (...)

Full text:

For Dengs Interview, eing a Catalyst Against Genocide please visit:

4. Breathe New Life into R2P, Canada Has Abandoned the Very Principle It Once Championed at the United Nations
By Lloyd Axworthy and Allan Rock, Canada's Foreign Affairs Minister (1996-2000) and Canada's Ambassador to the UN (2004-2006)
The Globe and Mail
29 January 2008

(...) A recent spate of analyses, comments and debates present a mixed picture, expressing both hope and dismay at the prospects for R2P becoming the foundation for a more effective way to manage global problems.

During a speech last week in India, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown endorsed R2P as a new global tool that can be used to strengthen the ability of the international community to effectively prevent, and respond to, situations of mass atrocity. In a recent meeting on the future of France and Europe's foreign policy, French officials spoke of their Foreign Minister's interest in the concept and of the extant possibilities for its use in shaping a new foreign-policy direction for Europe. The new UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, has appointed a Special Adviser on Responsibility to Protect, and there will soon be a new think tank based in New York, dedicated to promoting and advancing R2P. All positive signs. ()

Missing in action in this contemporary debate - and particularly absent on the question of how to properly implement the R2P-inspired UN mission in Darfur - is Canada. The champion of the principle has retired from the ring and now spends all its time, resources and attention on its combat role in Afghanistan...

Thanks to the leading role it played in the authorship and advocacy of R2P, Canada is in a unique position to be the model of its implementation. Going far beyond military intervention, R2P offers a range of measures on a broad continuum of social, economic and diplomatic choices. Canada has a singular opportunity to assume an authoritative and leading role in the international effort to stop the killing in Darfur and end the impunity that many of the perpetrators still enjoy. A starting point would be to help the UN draft a strategy to develop effective tools for the implementation of R2P so that we do not again face the tragic impasse seen in Darfur.

(...) Although R2P was originally intended to deal solely with situations of mass atrocity, if it becomes a standard part of global governance, the principles of R2P unbundled and applied in a different way may have lessons to teach about forging solutions to other shared problems so that the single sovereign state doesn't get in the way of collective efforts [whether one thinks of global warming, terrorism, migration, transnational crime or water management].

This could lead to a new global architecture that would help us achieve shared objectives, thus escaping the Westphalian nation-state straitjacket that impedes real progress toward solutions to today's global risks.

Source: unavailable

III. US Presidential Candidates and R2P

1. Clinton Supports Adoption Of Genocide Resolution, Pledges Recognition If Elected
28 January 2008

() Statement of Senator Hillary Clinton on the U.S.-Armenia Relationship:

Alone among the Presidential candidates, I have been a longstanding supporter of the Armenian Genocide Resolution. I have been a co-sponsor of the Resolution since 2002, and I support adoption of this legislation by both Houses of Congress.

I believe the horrible events perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire against Armenians constitute a clear case of genocide (...)

(...)We must close the gap between words and deeds to prevent mass atrocities. That is why I am a supporter of the Responsibility to Protect. As President, I will work to build and enhance U.S. and international capacity to act early and effectively to prevent mass atrocities... I have championed strong international action to ensure that the government of Sudan can no longer act with impunity, or interfere with the international peacekeeping force, which is essential for the protection of the people of Darfur. (...)

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IV. Darfur and R2P

1. Activists Urge AU to Put Darfur on Summit Agenda
Journal Chretien
29 January 2008

() The activists expressed dismay that despite the over 200,000 deaths and the ongoing displacement of over 2 million people, Darfur is not on the agenda of the AUs 10th ordinary summit, scheduled to take place in Addis Ababa on Friday.

() Four leading African civil society groups-the Darfur Consortium, International Refugee Initiatives, Afroflag and Femmes Africa Solidarity-are urging the AU, in partnership with the UN, to realize their responsibility to protect the people of Darfur by pushing for the speedy deployment and strengthening of the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) peacekeeping forces as well as calling on all parties to the conflict to agree an immediate cessation of hostilities.

(...) uman rights abuses, including rape of under-aged girls and boys is still taking place in Darfur. This is one of the most serious crises happening in this century. Now, we are here to urge the AU to make this problem on its agenda, [Nawal Hassan, a well known Sudanese activist] said.

(...) Civil society groups believe that part of the responsibility to protect the people of Darfur involves confronting the Sudanese government about the obstructions they are putting in the way of rapid force deployment of UNAMID, which took on the baton of peacekeeping in Darfur on the 31 December 2007, and to push the international community to provide equipment.

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V. Related Reports: Darfur

1. Amnesty International Report: isplaced in Darfur
Amnesty International
01 January 2008

Human rights organization Amnesty International is urging Sudan to cease blocking international peacekeepers from being deployed in Darfur. A report entitled isplaced in Darfur issued by the group describes the need to implement a ground-based troop force as soon as possible to mitigate the increased violence being felt there. The reports also requests overseas authorities to make sure peacekeepers are equipped with enough resources and personnel. Amnesty warns that Darfurs situation could spiral rapidly, without better security, seeing the large concentration of weaponry now present at refugee camps and a growing feeling of anger and frustration among Darfurs youth.

Consequently, it calls on the government in Sudan to cease disrupting the deployment of a joint United Nations/ African Union mission namid. Unamid began its work in Darfur on the 1st January 2008. Intended as a 26,000-strong force, to date, only 9,000 troops are in place. Sudans government has denied access to all but African troops, and, alongside a range of other demands, this has limited Unamids operability.

isplaced in Darfur also claims that Sudan is still carrying out attacks, and that the provision of weapons to Janjaweed fighters persists, in spite of pledges to take such armament away from them.

Please find "Displaced in Darfur" at:


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