Followed by Articles and Resources
January 2006 Violence continues, and thousands of Darfur refugees are crammed into camps in eastern Chad
February Bush calls for a UN peacekeeping force to be backed up by NATO troops, but Sudanese government refuses
Early-April Rebels charge the capital of Chad, Ndjamena. President of Chad blames Sudan for supporting them, and breaks off diplomatic relations
25 April UN Security Council imposes sanctions on four individuals considered a threat to Darfur; UN Security Council President issues a presidential statement on Darfur
28 April UN Security Council adopts Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict resolution, including an endorsement of the Responsibility to Protect.
More Information and the resolution:
Security Council Resolution 1674
28 April World Food Programme announces it will cut food rations to refugees in half
01 May Day of protests around the world for action in Darfur
06 May Sudanese Government and Sudanese Liberation Movement sign peace-agreement in Abuja
09 May Darfur refugees riot and call on the UN to intervene
11 May United States Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice addresses the UN Security Council on Darfur, including a reference to Responsibility to Protect; presents draft resolution on Darfur under Chapter VII of the UN Charter
11 May UN considers Chad protection force
16 May UN Security Council passes resolution on Darfur under Chapter VII
22 May Sudan elcomes UN envoys (Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, and Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hdi Annabi) dispatched to assess the situation in Darfur for UN peacekeepers
05 June Security Council visits Sudan and pressures government to accept international force
13 June Joint UN-AU team arrives in Darfur to assess the situation in preparation for an international force
15 June ICC reports evidence of large-scale massacres in Darfur to Security Council
18 June Denmark will contribute troops in Darfur if asked by the UN
18 July Aid donors, including the U.S., the Netherlands, Britain, France, and Belgium, pledge about $220 million in additional funding to AU forces in Darfur, enough to help to the end of September
20 August The Arab League's council of foreign ministers affirms the importance of the AU efforts in Darfur, with particular emphasis to political mediation and supporting and monitoring the ceasefire
31 August UN SC Resolution 1706 calls for the strengthening and expanding the mandate of UNMIS and time table from AMIS to UN operation in Darfur
17 September meetings and rallies in 50 cities world wide call for end conflict in Darfur in Global Day for Darfur
19 September In a press conference Al-Bashir completely rejects the transformation of AU force in Darfur to a UN peacekeeping operation
20 September AU extends force until end of the year with the promise of finacial support from the UN and the Arab States
22 September SC extends mandate of UNMIS until October 8, with intention to renew further
26 September Al-Bashir says he will deploy troops to work along side AU troops in Darfur and expresses opposition to UN force for fear of becoming another Iraq
29 September SC extends the mandate of Panel of Experts and urged all parties to cooperate with the HRC and the Panel of Experts
6 October SC extends UNMIS to 30 April 2007 and also called upon all parties to the Darfur Peace Agreement and the N'djamena Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement to honor their commitments
19 October Sudan president Al-Bashir says it would be willing to allow AU force strengthened by logistical support from the EU, UN or the Arab League
13 November UN pledges $77 million in personal and equipment to the AU force in Darfur
13 December HRC adopted consensus to dispatch a five member high-level mission to assess human rights situation in Darfur
23 December Sudan's president al-Bashir sends a letter to the UN saying he backs plans for a joint UN-AU force and wants to begin "immediately"
6 January 2007 HRC names a high-level UN team to investigate human rights abuses in Darfur
29 January Ghana president chosen to lead African Union, snubbing Sudan who were looking to hold the next presidency
27 February ICC identifies first Darfur suspects and Pre-Trial Chamber to issue summonses for two suspects before the court
28 February SG releases report to SC on Darfur talking about the worsening of the humanitarian and security situation in Darfur
13 March UN HRC Mission to Darfur releases report saying that Sudan should fully cooperate with a UN-AU force, stop the targeting of civilians, and observe human rights laws
Related Articles (in reverse chronological order)
SUDAN SHOULD ASSIST IN DEPLOYMENT OF DARFUR FORCE WITHOUT DELAY': UN RIGHTS MISSION
States News Service
13 March 2007
The following information was released by the United Nations:
Sudan's Government should fully cooperate with the immediate deployment of a United Nations-African Union (AU) hybrid force for Darfur and end the targeting of civilians, while all armed rebel movements must also strictly observe human rights laws, the UN Human Rights Council's high-level mission to the region said in its report published today.
() The report says the Sudanese Government "has manifestly failed to protect the population of Darfur from large-scale international crimes, and has itself orchestrated and participated in these crimes."
Underscoring the "solemn obligation of the international community to exercise its responsibility to protect," the report details the grim situation in Darfur, highlighting that killing of civilians remains "widespread," along with the systematic use of rape and sexual violence. It also makes recommendations to the Council itself, the Sudanese Government, the various armed rebel movements and the international community.
"The Government of the Sudan should cooperate fully in the deployment of the proposed UN-AU peacekeeping/protection force without further delay," the report states. "Sudan should end the targeting of civilians in Darfur, cease all support for Janjaweed/militia forces, and proceed with the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of such forces."
The mission also called on the Government to remove all obstacles to the delivery of humanitarian assistance to the millions in need in the region. ()
The report also calls on all armed rebel movements operating in the region to strictly observe and respect international law, and ensure the free and safe access and movement of humanitarian personnel. It also urges them to "cooperate in good faith" in the pursuit of peace.
In addition, it calls on the Security Council to take "further action" to ensure the protection of civilians in Darfur, including through the deployment of the proposed UN-AU force, while recommending that the Human Rights Council should help set up an independent national rights commission for Sudan "to address the grave situation." ()
SUDAN: BAN KI-MOON CALLS FOR IALOGUE FROM ALL SIDES AS DAILY VIOLENCE CONTINUES
UN News Centre
28 February 2007
Painting his grimmest picture yet of the humanitarian and security situation in Sudans strife-torn Darfur region, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has reiterated the urgent need for a ceasefire, calling for ialogue and negotiation from all sides, while the United Nations mission in the country today reported more abductions, hijackings and tribal fighting throughout the region.
In his latest report on Darfur to the Security Council, which was released today and covers the past three months through January, Mr. Ban in particular condemns the recent aerial bombings by the Government and the arrest and physical abuse of international humanitarian staff by local police last month.
am distressed by the deteriorating humanitarian and security situation on the ground. All parties must cease violent attacks on civilians. I particularly deplore the aerial bombings by Sudanese Government forces, which have expanded to new areas since 16 January, resulting in more civilian casualties and suffering, he writes.
appeal, in the strongest possible terms, to the Government of the Sudan and the other parties to desist from further hostilities, which destabilize the entire region and render peace an increasingly distant prospect. All parties must submit to dialogue and negotiation, and commit themselves to a non-military solution to the devastating conflict in Darfur.r
Mr. Ban says the increasing violence since November last year has also stretched the capacity of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), and he appeals for more international assistance to the Mission and also for the UN support packages to this operation. ()
Full text available at:
ICC PROSECUTOR IDENTIFIES FIRST DARFUR SUSPECTS
Human Rights Watch
27 February 2007
(New York) The International Criminal Court (ICC) prosecutors case against two Sudanese leaders for atrocities in Darfur is a first step in ending the impunity associated with horrific crimes there, Human Rights Watch said today. Earlier today, the ICC prosecutor asked Pre-Trial Chamber I to issue summonses for two suspects to appear before the court.
he ICC prosecutors request sends a signal to Khartoum and anjaweed militia leaders that ultimately they are not going to get away with the unspeakable atrocities, said Richard Dicker, director of Human Rights Watchs International Justice Program. e urge the prosecutor to explain the significance of his action today to the communities devastated by crimes in Darfur.
For full article see:
AFRICAN UNION PICKS GHANAIAN AS ITS LEADER, IN SNUB TO SUDAN
The New York Times
By The Associated Press
30 January 2007
The African Union on Monday chose President John Kufuor of Ghana to lead the 53-member bloc. Because of the worsening violence in Darfur, the group turned aside, for the second year, Sudan's effort to win the post.
() Sudanese leaders were adamant that they deserved the rotating chairmanship, but international organizations opposed it, accusing Sudan 's government of taking part in the conflict in Darfur. Rebel leaders in the region have said they would stop considering the current African Union peacekeeping mission as an honest broker there if Sudan were selected.
"By consensus vote, President Kufuor of Ghana has been elected to the presidency of the African Union," Alpha Oumar Konar, the African Union's chief executive, told reporters in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa. ()
Full text available at:
HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL NAMES TEAM TO INVESTIGATE RIGHTS ABUSES IN DARFUR
UN Radio News Service
26 January 2007
The UN Human Rights Council announced Friday that Nobel Peace Prize winner Jody Williams will lead a high-level UN team to investigate human rights abuses in Sudan's Darfur region.
The council said the team will also include the UN's special rapporteur on human rights in Sudan Sima Samar.
In New York, UN Associate Spokesman Farhan Haq says members of the team will arrive in Geneva over the next few days to begin making preparation for the mission.
"The president has also invited the participation of the following individuals in their personal capacities: Mart Nutt of the Council of Europe's European Commission against Racism and Intolerance; Betrand Ramcharan, former Acting UN High Commissioner for Human Rights; Gabonese Ambassador Patrice Tonda; and Makarim Wibosono, President of the 61st session of Commission on Human Rights."
The team leaves for Sudan in early February.
The Human Rights Council decided last month to send the mission which will assess the human rights situation in Darfur.
Article Available at: http://radio.un.org/story.asp?NewsID=6154
SUDAN ACKS UN PLAN ON DARFUR
27 December 2007
Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir has said in a letter to the UN he backs plans for a join UN-African Union force in the troubled region of Darfur.
In the letter to the secretary general, Mr Bashir says he wants to begin "immediately" to implement UN plans.
However, diplomats note that Mr Bashir remains opposed to any large-scale UN deployment and has gone back on agreements on Darfur before. ()
() Mr Bashir says Sudan agrees to the first two parts of the UN plan - deployment of new staff and equipment to the African Union force followed by a larger support package.
However, the third part of the UN plan - the size and command of the new force - is not finalised in the letter.
And UN diplomats expressed fears that carrying out plans through a special panel - the Tripartite Committee of Sudan, the UN and the AU - would give Khartoum an effective veto.
Sudan's change of heart on its previous opposition to UN participation follows international threats of trade sanctions and of a ban on aircraft movements over Darfur, to stop bombing raids by government forces.()
Full text available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6211301.stm
UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL TO SEND HIGH-LEVEL MISSION TO DARFUR
UN News Centre
13 December 2006
The United Nations Human Rights Council today agreed to dispatch a five-member high-level mission to Darfur to assess the situation in the war-torn Sudanese region, the scene of hundreds of thousands of civilian deaths, mass rape, massive forced displacement and other abuses during the past three years.
Secretary-General Kofi Annan immediately welcomed the move, taken in Geneva on the second day of a special Council hearing devoted to Darfur, describing it as obust action to address the grave human rights situation. The Council decision was adopted by consensus.
he decision sends a united message that the ongoing violence and killing in Darfur is unacceptable and must stop, Mr. Annan said in a statement released by his spokesman.
The five ighly qualified persons on the mission to Darfur will be appointed by the Council President, Luis Alfonso de Alba of Mexico, after consultations with the 47-member Council and Sima Samar, the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Sudan.
The text agreed to by Council members asks the Secretary-General and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Louise Arbour to provide the mission with all the administrative, technical and logistical help needed to complete its work.
It also welcomes the Sudanese Governments cooperation with Ms. Samar and calls on Khartoum to continue and intensify its working relationship with the Human Rights Council and Ms. Arbours office.
More than 200,000 people have been killed across Darfur since 2003 and at least 2 million others displaced from their homes because of fighting between Government forces, allied militias and rebel groups seeking greater autonomy.
Some 4 million people now depend on the UN or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for humanitarian aid, and the security situation across the vast and impoverished region on Sudans western flank continues to deteriorate.
The UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) today condemned the weekend hijacking in North Darfur of a vehicle belonging to the African Union (AU) peacekeeping force in Darfur (known as AMIS) and the kidnapping of two AMIS military personnel on board.
In a news update from Khartoum, the Mission demanded the immediate, safe release of the two staff members, adding that AMIS presence in Darfur s crucial to restoring order and stability.r
The situation inside the North Darfur state capital of El Fasher remains tense, the mission said, while noting there have been skirmishes between Arab militia and armed Chadian opposition groups south of the town. A spate of armed hijackings of vehicles belonging to humanitarian NGOs has also taken place in West Darfur in recent days.
The Tripartite Mechanism, which comprises representatives of UNMIS, the AU and the Sudanese Government, held its first meeting today in Khartoum. The body is discussing how to implement the $21 million UN support package to AMIS, the first part of a three-phase process that is expected to eventually culminate in a hybrid UN-AU peacekeeping force in Darfur.
Under the ight support package, agreed upon last month, UNMIS will provide 105 military advisers, 33 police officers and 48 civilian staff, as well as equipment.
Article available at: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=20968&Cr=sudan&Cr1=
U.N. PLEDGES $77M FOR DARFUR FORCES
By LES NEUHAUS
The Associated Press
13 November 2006
ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia -- The United Nations said Monday it has pledged about $77 million in personnel and equipment to help the overwhelmed African Union force in Darfur as Sudan blocks the world body from sending its own peacekeepers to the war-torn region.
The package includes military and police advisers, communications equipment and tools like night-vision goggles, said Hedi Annabi, the U.N. assistant secretary general for peacekeeping operations. It will be given to the African Union as soon as possible.
The aid has been offered because of Sudan's refusal to allow a U.N. peacekeeping force in Darfur, Annabi told reporters.
"That (willingness) is not there today (for a United Nations peacekeeping force), so in the meantime we are looking at ways in which we can move forward by reinforcing (the African Union Mission in Sudan) to enable it to go on with its tasks effectively," Annabi said.
The U.N. Department of Peacekeeping Operations in New York said the Sudanese government initially agreed to allow the United Nations to provide the AU troops with a support package worth about $22 million. Annabi was able to secure the government's agreement to allow the rest of the $77 million aid package to go through in the last few days.()
Full article available at:
SUDAN HAS 'NO OBJECTION' TO STRENGTHENED AU MANDATE PRESIDENT
The Ethiopian Herald
26 October, 2006
() AFP reported that Sudan would  be willing to allow the strengthened AU force to have logistical support from the European Union, the UN or the Arab League, Omar Al-Bashir said. ()
Bashir warned that any UN attempt to impose foreign troops in Darfur could lead to "such troops becoming a target of attacks and part of the conflict, not the solution".
When asked if he would accept 20,000 AU troops in the country, up from the current level of 7,200, he said that Sudan has "no objection to the AU increasing its troops, strengthening its mandate, or receiving logistical support from the EU, the UN, or the Arab League for that matter, but this must of course, be done in consultation with the government of national unity. ()
Denying reports that the Arab League had suggested he accept troops from Arab or Muslim countries outside Africa, he insisted any non-African help for the AU be confined to equipment and logistics.
He also urged the governments of Britain and the United States to stop "applying pressure (on Sudan) the way it is being done now - to the wrong party at the wrong time.
Source: not available.
SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS UNITED NATIONS MISSION IN SUDAN UNTIL 30 APRIL 2007,UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTING RESOLUTION 1714 (2006)
UN Department of Public Information
6 October 2006
Calling upon the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in southern Sudan to urgently accelerate progress in implementing that pact, the Security Council this morning decided to extend the mandate of the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) until 30 April 2007, while stating its intention to extend it further beyond that date.
Through the unanimous adoption of resolution 1714 (2006), the Council also called upon the parties to the Darfur Peace Agreement and the Ndjamena Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement to respect their commitments and implement fully all aspects of the Agreements without delay.
In addition, it called upon those parties that have not signed the Darfur Peace Agreement to do so expeditiously.
The meeting began at 1:17 p.m. and adjourned at 1:21 p.m.
For resolution: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8848.doc.htm
SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS FOR ONE YEAR WORK OF EXPERT PANEL MONITORING ARMS EMBARGO IN DARFUR, REQUESTS ADDITIONAL EXPERT, UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTING RESOLUTION 1713 (2006)
29 September 2006
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter, the Council, by unanimously adopting resolution 1713 (2006), decided to extend until 29 September 2007, the mandate of the four-member Panel of Experts originally appointed pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005), and requested the Secretary-General to appoint a fifth member to the team. ()
The Council gave the Panel 90 days to provide an interim report to the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005), to monitor the arms embargo, and requested the Panel to provide, no later than 29 March 2007, a midterm briefing on its work, and a final report to the Council with its findings and recommendations no later than 30 days prior to termination of its mandate.
It also urged all States, relevant United Nations bodies, the African Union and other interested parties, to cooperate fully with the Committee and the Panel of Experts, in particular by supplying any information at their disposal on implementation of the measures imposed by resolutions 1591 (2005) and 1556 (2004).
Full Text: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8845.doc.htm
SUDAN TO DEPLOY NEW FORCES ALONG WITH AU TROOPS IN DARFUR: PRESIDENT
Agence France Presse
25 September 2006
Sudan will deploy new integrated forces in Darfur to work alongside African Union peacekeepers in providing security in the region, President Omar al-Beshir said late Sunday.
The integrated units of "the army, police and security forces will be responsible for keeping peace and stability in Darfur region," said Beshir. These units will operate in the presence of the African Union forces to which he said his government "will not accept any substitute," reiterating his opposition to a proposed transition to a UN force.
"We continue supporting the African forces and the UN can support those forces logistically and materially," said Beshir, slamming the UN force as "an American-engineered conspiracy to turn the Sudan into another Iraq . ()
"Those parties which allege 300,000 people were killed in the conflict are lying and I defy anyone to prove that figure. The number of the dead all through the conflict has not exceeded 10,000 on both government and rebel sides," Beshir asserted. ()
Beshir also said his government had decided to impose as of Monday travel restrictions on US diplomats in the country, limiting them to movement within 25 kilometers (15 miles) of the center of the capital Khartoum , in response to similar restrictions imposed on Sudanese diplomats in the United States . ()
Full Text: Unavailable
SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS THE MANDATE OF THE UN MISSION IN SUDAN, CITING RAVE CONCERN
22 September 2006
Expressing "grave concern" over the worsening humanitarian situation in Darfur , the Security Council today extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) until 8 October, while also expressing its intention to renew it further.
The 15-member body voted unanimously on the move, which comes just two days after the African Union (AU) extended its mission in the strife-torn region until the end of this year. It also follows a recent warning from Secretary-General Kofi Annan that Darfur is heading towards disaster unless UN peacekeepers are allowed in.
The current UNMIS mandate was set to expire on Sunday and today's resolution also noted with "deep concern" restrictions placed on its movements and materiel, while further "reaffirming" the Council's commitment to Sudan 's sovereignty, unity, independence, and territorial integrity, as well as to the cause of peace. ()
Full Text: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=19982&Cr=sudan&Cr1=
AU EXTENDS DARFUR FORCE TILL YEAR END
By Matthew Verrinder
20 September 2006
The African Union said on Wednesday it would extend its underfinanced force in Sudan's Darfur region until the end of this year after receiving promises of support from the United Nations and Arab states.
Burkina Faso's President Blaise Compaore, head of the AU's security committee, said after a mini-summit on the fringes of the U.N. General Assembly session that the force would receive logistic and material support from the United Nations.
Compaore also said the AU obtained a commitment from Arab states to finance the operation. Arab nations have promised funding in the past, but so far only NATO countries have helped with transport and other aid. ()
But Compaore said Sudan is "disposed" to work with the United Nations, without elaborating.
"All of the negotiations and all of the contacts we have had clearly indicated that they are willing and are disposed to work together with the United Nations," he said. ()
U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan and U.N. peacekeeping chief Jean-Marie Guehenno spoke to the AU council before it acted.
Full Text: http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=worldNews&storyID=2006-09-20T192839Z_01_N20228272_RTRUKOC_0_US-SUDAN-DARFUR-UN.xml&pageNumber=1&imageid=&cap=&sz=13&WTModLoc=NewsArt-C1-ArticlePage1
PRESS CONFERENCE BY PRESIDENT OF SUDAN
19 September 2006
At a Headquarters press conference this afternoon, President Omer Hassan Al-Bashir of the Sudan said his Government "categorically and totally" rejected the transformation of the African Union force in Darfur into a United Nations peacekeeping operation. ()
He said the African Union forces, which had been performing "admirably", should be strengthened and provided with the resources to carry out their functions. Emphasis should be placed on implementing the peace agreement. "As far as we are concerned, the establishment of a UN force has become an objective, rather than peace in Darfur." It had also become an objective of other agendas. Security Council resolution 1701 (2006) emphasized and reinforced the Government's suspicions by referring to the establishment of a police force compatible with a democratic system, while Sudan's police force, established more than 100 years ago, was considered one of the best in the region.
Ulterior motives depicted the whole of Darfur as being in chaos, he said, pointing out that most areas of the region were peaceful. "We haven't seen famine, we haven't seen epidemics, especially among children." Voluntary organizations were spreading fiction to solicit more assistance.
He told another questioner that any new forces sent to the country should be African and under the command of the African Union. While Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter stipulated that the Security Council might request a regional organization to perform peacekeeping functions, Sudan would not accept the presence of an African Union force under the command of the United Nations or any other party. The Government of the Sudan would not trust any guarantees regarding the introduction of such a force.
The Sudan's principled position was that the African Union force should continue its mission. There had been an attempt to give a negative impression about the Government's position on the matter, which was that the African Union force should not be transformed into a United Nations peacekeeping operation, and that the African Union itself did not have the authority to permit that.
The mandate for such a transition would have to be given by the Government of the Sudan, he stressed. If the African Union could not continue with its mission, the alternative was to withdraw. The Government of the Sudan had not, however, requested such a withdrawal. "We want the African Union to remain in Darfur until peace is re-established." ()
Full Text: http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs//2006/060919_Al-Bashir.doc.htm
'GLOBAL DAY FOR DARFUR' SEES PROTESTS AROUND THE WORLD
17 September 2006
Meetings and rallies were held in nearly 50 cities worldwide on Sunday to call for an end to the civil war in Sudan's western Darfur region which has led to the deaths of more than 300,000 people.
Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch were among around 30 human rights groups behind the Global Day for Darfur. The event was organised to coincide with the start of the United Nations General Assembly debate this week and to mark the first anniversary of the signing of the 2005 UN World Summit Outcome Document. ()
Demonstrations took place in cities across the globe, stretching from Bamako to Berlin, Dubai to Dublin, Manama to Melbourne and from Seoul to Stockholm.
Former US secretary of state Madeleine Albright was among the speakers at a demonstration in New York City's Central Park. A crowd estimated by organizers at more than 30,000 demanded the international community press Sudan to allow in a UN peacekeeping force. ()
In Rwanda, however, the government banned a rally in support of sending UN peacekeepers to Darfur, saying it was concerned about the message the event would send as Rwandan troops participated in the beleaguered AU peacekeeping mission in Darfur.
The main speaker at a Toronto rally was retired Canadian general Romeo Dallaire -- commander of UN peacekeepers in Rwanda at the time of the 1994 genocide -- who blasted Sudan's "bellicose attitude" towards the world. In Sudan, meanwhile, a group of local voluntary organisations marked the day by staging a protest denouncing the worldwide solidarity event as a Jewish conspiracy. ()
SECURITY COUNCIL EXPANDS MANDATE OF UN MISSION IN SUDAN TO INCLUDE DARFUR, ADOPTING RESOLUTION 1706 BY VOTE OF 12 IN FAVOUR, WITH 3 ABSTAINING
UN Department of Public Information
31 August 2006
The Security Council decided this morning to expand the mandate of the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) to include its deployment to Darfur, without prejudice to its existing mandate and operations, in order to support the early and effective implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement.
As it adopted resolution 1706 (2006) by a vote of 12 in favour with 3 abstentions ( China, Qatar, Russian Federation), the Council invited the consent of the Sudanese Government of National Unity for that deployment, and called on Member States to ensure an expeditious deployment. It requested the Secretary-General to arrange the rapid deployment of additional capabilities to enable UNMIS to deploy in Darfur.
For full article: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8821.doc.htm
ARAB LEAGUE SUPPORTS AU FORCE IN DARFUR
Financial Times Information Limited
21 August 2006
The Arab League's council of foreign ministers, in an ordinary meeting in Cairo Sunday [20 August], affirmed the importance that the African Union (AU) continues its efforts in Darfur and completes its task in tackling the crisis in the region, particularly with regard to its political mediation and supporting and monitoring of the cease-fire.
At the conclusion of its meeting at the premises of the Arab League Secretariat General, the council affirmed that sending any other forces to Darfur necessitates consent of the Sudanese government.
The council further urged the Arab states to provide financial and material support to the AU mission to enable it continue its tasks, calling on the Arab states to enhance its participation in the AU forces and monitors in the region.
In the meantime, the Arab foreign ministers decided to bear the cost of the AU forces' presence in Darfur for six months as of 1 October 2006. ()
Full text: Unavailable
DONORS PLEDGE TO BOOST AFRICAN FORCE
18 July 2006
Aid donors meeting in the Belgian capital have pledged about US $220 million in additional funding to the African Union (AU) force struggling to keep the peace in Sudan's western region of Darfur.
The funding will help the Africa Mission in Sudan protect civilians and monitor the implementation of a Peace Agreement signed in May between the Sudanese government and some of the rebel groups in Darfur.()
"I can't foresee any realistic exit of the Darfur conflict without such a transition [from AU to UN peacekeeping], and I can't either imagine that the government of Sudan would continue to oppose it," the EU's foreign policy chief Javier Solana said at the conference.
Limited funding and lack of equipment have impaired the capacity of the 7,000-strong Africa Mission to effectively carry out its peacekeeping mandate in Darfur.()
The United States said it would give $116 million to be used to strengthen the Africa Mission in Sudan, while the EU will make available $31.2 million to the Mission on top of an additional $50 million for the humanitarian effort in Darfur. The Netherlands pledged $31.2 million, Britain $36.6 million, France $2.5 million and Belgium $1.25 million.
The pledges would only be enough to sustain the Mission until the end of September; it needs an extra $450 million to operate until year-end, to pay for extra soldiers to be deployed, communications equipment, air support capability and more vehicles.()
Full Text: http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/IRIN/b4639e3e3ae15be5da000f1c3edbeb93.htm
Denmark backs transition to UN peacekeeping force in Darfur
UN News Service
18 June 2006
As an assessment team continues to hold discussions in Sudan on a possible transition from the current African Union mission in Darfur to a United Nations operation there, the Prime Minister of Denmark today told reporters following a meeting with Secretary-General Kofi Annan that his country would back a UN force in the vast, strife-torn region.
enmark supports a UN takeover of the peacekeeping mission in Sudan, said Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, adding that the Government would ositively consider a military contribution if the UN requests so. ()
Asked about the status of that team, the Secretary-General said its work is continuing. hope the Government will agree to cooperate and support the force, because we are really going there to help the Government and to help the people of Sudan, he said. n the meantime, we are approaching governments informally but we will firm up that request once we have the agreement from the Sudanese Government and the Security Council has adopted the resolution authorizing a peacekeeping force in Darfur.
Full text: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=18908&Cr=Darfur&Cr1=
Sudan: ICC Reports Evidence of Large-Scale Massacres
Africa News from Inter Press Service
15 June 2006
The chief prosecutor of the Hague-based International Criminal Court (ICC) told the U.N. Security Council Wednesday that investigators have uncovered evidence of "large-scale massacres" in Darfur, Sudan, but stopped short of labeling the situation there "genocide".
Attacks on villages and refugee camps by Khartoum-backed Arab militias, or Janjaweed, have killed as many as 400,000 people over the past three years, and left another 700,000 homeless and without access to humanitarian relief.
In his third report to the Security Council since the case was referred to the ICC in March 2005, Prosecutor Louis Moreno-Ocampo said that the court's investigative team has compiled a Darfur Crime Database for the period October 2002 to May 2006, which shows that the violence began escalating in October 2002 and peaked from April 2003 to April 2005. ()
Although some of the massacres appear to have been carried out with "genocidal intent", he said, the issue is still being investigated and the prosecutor's office will not characterise the crimes until a full probe has been conducted.
He also noted that investigators are hampered by the precarious security situation in the countryside, and must be able to ensure that witnesses are able to testify without fear of reprisals. Moreover, many rape victims may opt to remain silent at the risk of being ostracised and rebuked, he said. ()
As a result, the ICC established a temporary office in eastern Chad where many displaced Darfur residents had sought refuge. However, fighting between rebel groups and the Chadian government effectively shut down the ICC's activities there in April The eastern Chad operations are currently still suspended.
The other challenge that could severely interfere with the prosecutor's pursuit of justice will be the court's ability to wield its jurisdiction, which depends in large part on how much cooperation the court gets from the Sudanese government.
Since Ocampo's formal announcement of the ICC investigation, the government of Sudan has established various courts and commissions to conduct its own probe of the Darfur atrocities, a move that has drawn criticism from groups like Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International. Under its statute, the ICC is not allowed to explore a case once the Sudanese government has begun investigating or prosecuting the same charges.
The Sudanese government established the Special Criminal Court on the Events in Darfur (SCCED), two specialised courts, and other institutions that provide support to those courts, including the Judicial Investigations Committee, the Special Prosecutions Commissions, the National Commission of Inquiry and the Committees Against Rape. ()
News Report, told IPS. "However, there are statutes within the ICC's charter that would allow it jurisdiction in Darfur, if the U.N. had the political will to do so."
"While China and Russia have been blocking any U.N. action on Darfur, by working to weaken any resolutions that emerge from the Security Council on the subject, the U.S.'s aversion to the ICC has also been a factor in preventing the ICC from gaining a foothold in Sudan," Wolfe said.()
Full text: http://allafrica.com/stories/200606160004.html
UN-AFRICAN UNION TEAM ARRIVES IN DARFUR TO ASSESS STRENGTHENING INTERNATIONAL FORCE
13 June 2006
A joint United Nations-African Union (AU) team arrived in Darfur today on a mission to strengthen an AU monitoring force already there and prepare for its possible transition to a full-fledged UN peacekeeping operation even as a new attack was reported against humanitarian workers trying to ease the suffering in the strife-torn Sudanese region. ()
The joint UN-AU mission, led by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guhenno, will meet with local regional leaders, representatives of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and the AU Mission in Sudan (AMIS), after holding wide-ranging consultations in Khartoum, Sudans capital, with Government officials.
UN Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland has warned that it is vital that AMIS receive a more robust mandate to protect the civilian population and humanitarian workers, and that its force be at least double its current strength of 7,000.
While the Government has agreed to the deployment of the assessment team, it has not yet agreed to a transition to a UN operation.
The attack on the UNHCR post came in an area about 95 kilometres south of the West Darfur capital of El Geneina, which had previously been calm. In mid-May, UNHCR started moving some 5,000C Chadian refugees, who had taken refuge there after fleeing military and bandit activity along the border between Chad and Sudan
Full text: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=18837&Cr=sudan&Cr1=
SECURITY COUNCIL ARRIVES IN WARY SUDAN
By Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press Writer
5 June 2006
The U.N. Security Council arrived in a wary Sudan late Monday with assurances that the United Nations has no intention of taking over the country and sees the government as a partner in promoting peace.
The government has been very reluctant to allow a U.N. peacekeeping force to take over from the 7,000-strong African Union force in conflict-wracked Darfur that has largely been unable to stop the violence there. Fears of U.N. intervention were fueled last month when a council resolution to spur planning for a handover was adopted under Chapter 7 of the U.N. Charter, which allows military action. ()
The AU force in Darfur now has been temporarily charged with helping implement a May 25 peace deal between the Sudanese government and the main rebel group there. In March, the African Union's Peace and Security Council decided in principle to keep the AU force in Darfur until Sept. 30, when the U.N. would then take control. The transfer would require approval from the U.N. Security Council.
But the assessment had been delayed because Sudan refused to grant visas for the mission. The deadlock was broken after a visit by a top United Nations envoy last week. ()
Jones Parry said the Security Council will be trying to get the Sudanese government's agreement for a U.N. peacekeeping mission in Darfur to take over from the African Union late this year or early next year and to beef up the AU force in the interim so it can more effectively monitor the Darfur peace agreement. ()
The U.N. is involved in Sudan "because of the responsibility of the international community to alleviate hardship, to avoid the atrocities," Jones Parry said. ()
An editorial Monday in the independent opposition paper Rae Al Shaab called the Security Council mission "a visit by an unwelcome guest."
"The visit of the council is meant to be a full international siege, a load on the chest of the Sudanese people and a continuation of the pressure to dispatch yet more foreign troops to Darfur, nothing else, nothing more," Rae Al Shaab said, calling the council "a tool used by some superpowers to serve their own ends." ()
The council also wants to assure the government of its "full respect for the territorial integrity of Sudan as a country," [Jones Parry] said. "We see the government of Sudan as a partner in what is now unfolding ... and the government of Sudan has an opportunity to move things in the right direction because of the actions it's taken."
Full text: http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060605/ap_on_re_mi_ea/sudan_security_council
SUDAN WELCOMES UN OFFICIALS SENT FOR TALKS ON DARFUR FORCE UN MISSION
UN News Service
22 May 2006
The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) said the countrys Government welcomed the upcoming visit of two UN envoys, who are headed to Khartoum for talks on a planned UN force to take over from the African Union operation following a peace agreement earlier this month
A UN spokesman in New York said today that the Sudanese Government has still not consented to the deployment of an assessment team to Darfur.
The Secretary-Generals Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hdi Annabi, were dispatched to the Sudanese capital for intensified talks on the issue after the Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution on 16 May under Chapter VII of the Charter, which allows for enforcement measures, calling for such a team to be deployed within a week.()
Meanwhile, the Secretary-Generals Special Representative for Sudan, Jan Pronk, pressed local government and community leaders to close their ranks behind the two-week-old pact during a recent trip to Darfur
Mr. Pronk agreed to hold regular meetings between UNMIS and local government leaders in West Darfur, as part of ongoing efforts to explain the Darfur Peace Agreement. ()
During a series of similar gatherings, almost all internally displaced persons (IDPs) pleaded to Mr. Pronk for immediate protection by UN peacekeeping forces and for more food rations and other relief supplies. Women and children all echoed the demands of male IDPs for rapid protection by UN troops against attacks by the Janjaweed militia and for better foodstuff and other necessities
Full text: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=18566&Cr=sudan&Cr1=#
Security Council Unanimously Adopts Resolution Paving Way for UN Force in Darfur
UN News Service
16 May 2006
The Security Council unanimously adopt[ed] a resolution calling for the deployment on the ground of a joint UN-Africa Union (AU) assessment team within one week to lay the groundwork for [a robust United Nations peacekeeping force in Sudan's war-torn Darfur region], which would take over from the AU mission (AMIS) now monitoring the area.
The Council called on all parties to the Darfur Peace Agreement signed earlier this month by the Sudanese Government and the largest rebel force in the region to "work with the African Union, the United Nations, regional and international organizations and Member States to accelerate the transition to a United Nations operation."
The resolution also called on those rebel groups that have not yet signed the Agreement to do so without delay.
Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which allows for enforcement measures, the resolution expressed the Council's intention to consider a travel ban and assets freeze against any individual or group that violates or blocks implementation of the Agreement
Under the resolution, Secretary-General Kofi Annan would submit recommendations to the Council within one week of the assessment team's return on all relevant issues, including force requirements and cost estimates, for a UN operation. ()
[Mr. Annan's Special Representative for Sudan, Jan] Pronk, will leave tomorrow for Darfur to continue his efforts to widen the circle of support for the pact
During his three-day visit, Mr. Pronk will meet AMIS commanders, as well as the Wali, or governor, of West Darfur and local representatives of civil society and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Full text: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=18496&Cr=sudan&Cr1=
Read the Security Council Resolution here: Security Council Resolution 1679
SECRETARY RICE SPEAKS ON DARFUR PEACE AGREEMENT
US FED NEWS
11 May 2006
The U.S. Department of State issued the following transcript of remarks by the U.S. Secretary of State:
SECRETARY RICE: Mr. Secretary General, Mr. President, fellow Ministers, members of the Security Council, I would like to thank all of you for responding to the call for this meeting and convening a special session of this body on such short notice. The Darfur Peace Agreement, signed just days ago in Abuja, represents an historic opportunity for the people of Darfur to secure real peace and lasting justice. The United Nations has a vital role to play at this hopeful moment and the United States urges the Security Council to quickly pass the resolution that we circulated yesterday.
I have visited Darfur. I have seen the unspeakable suffering The United States has characterized this wanton campaign of violence as genocide and yesterday President Bush reaffirmed that judgment.
With the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement, we are now - we really have an opportunity to help end the long nightmare that has befallen the people of Darfur. The source of the conflict in Darfur is a political problem, as old as Sudan itself. Historically, the Government of Khartoum has not been able to rule all of its citizens justly
In this way, the Darfur agreement is a worthy complement to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
The Darfur Peace Agreement is the foundation on which to begin building a future of freedom, security and opportunity for the people of Darfur. Each of the parties has pledged to cooperate in meeting its unique and important obligations, from disarming and demobilizing militias, to building an inclusive political process, to sharing wealth and generation development in Darfur.
Most importantly, the agreement sets out a path that can return the people of Darfur to their homes. It is now vital for all of Sudan's neighbors to support this peace agreement as well. In addition, the international community must insist that all parties remain accountable and that the agreement is completely and verifiably implemented. It is now more important than ever to have a strong United Nations effort to ensure that the agreement's detailed timelines are monitored and enforced. The accord clearly states that neutral peacekeepers have an essential role to play in this process.
This is an extremely difficult job and the AU troops have performed admirably. Recognizing this, the African Union expressed its desire on March 10th to transition its mission in Sudan to a larger UN-led force that can do more to protect the people of Darfur.
Just as UN peacekeepers play a central role in helping to implement the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between North and South, we now need a UN peacekeeping force to help implement the Darfur peace agreement ()
Today, I call upon all nations to do their part to help the World Food Program feed and care for the people of Darfur
This is a time of testing for the international community, especially for the United Nations. The plight of the people of Darfur stirs the conscience of all human beingsThis is a challenge for the entire community of nations and it is one that cannot be taken lightly.
If the idea of an international community is to mean anything, if the founding principles of the United Nations are to be more than just dreams, and if the notion of our responsibility to protect the weakest and the most powerless among us is ever to be more than just an empty promise, then the Security Council must act
Thank you very much, Mr. President.
(Link to full text unavailable)
UN PLANS CHAD PROTECTION FORCE
11 May 2006
The UN wants to raise a force to protect civilians and refugees in Chad from attacks by armed groups spilling over from Darfur, an official has said.
Kingsley Amaning, humanitarian co-ordinator for the UN in Chad, said: "We have a seriously deteriorating security situation in Chad and the government's capacity is also diminishing in terms of security response.
"Therefore, along with the [Chadian] government, we are looking at the possibility of putting in place an expatriate, international force that will support government efforts to provide security in the areas where we are operating." ()
Chad army ineffective
"It's very clear that Chad has limitations with its present armed forces being small and its police force being even smaller, and that's why ... we are looking at other methods to try to protect the civilian, refugee and displaced populations," Egeland said. ()
Full text: http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9DD07E17-4160-4550-B143-BB8022AF41F2.htm
ANGRY DARFUR REFUGEES RIOT IN DEMAND FOR U.N. TROOPS
The New York Times
By Lydia Polgreen
9 May 2006
An African Union interpreter was hacked to death on Monday in this vast, squalid camp by a mob of angry demonstrators within hours of a visit from the top United Nations aid official.
The United Nations evacuated aid workers and journalists from the camp when a huge demonstration calling for rapid international intervention in Darfur turned violent.
The protesters tried to stab a longtime Oxfam worker they suspected of being a spy for the Sudanese government, and then set upon an African Union compound where unarmed police officers and a Sudanese interpreter had barricaded themselves. The outpost was soon overrun and looted, and the interpreter killed.
The violence underscored the tenuousness of the peace deal reached last week in Nigeria by the government and the main rebel faction, and also illustrated the barely contained tensions in enormous camps where more than two million refugees live.
The demonstrators were demanding that a United Nations force replace the African Union soldiers assigned to protect civilians here. Protesters at another camp, Zallingei, also attacked an African Union outpost on Monday, but no one was killed.
The chaos raised questions about the ability of the African Union force to oversee this critical period between the signing of the peace agreement, which it will have to enforce, and the arrival of a much larger United Nations force, which is many months away.
The 7,000-member African Union force is caught in an "impossible squeeze, really, between the exploding expectations of the civilian population of security, which they have been denied for so long, and on the other side the simple limitations of their capacity," Mr. Egeland said.
If conditions do not improve soon, Mr. Egeland said, "Kalma is a powder keg."
Full text: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/09/world/africa/09sudan.html
Related article: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=18393&Cr=Sudan&Cr1=&Kw1=darfur&Kw2=refugees&Kw3=
DARFUR PARTIES SEAL PEACE DEAL
This Day (Lagos)
By Josephine Lohor
6 May 2006
After two years and one month of negotiations in the nation's capital, Abuja, a peace deal has finally been signed between the largest rebel movement - the Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM) - A faction led by Minni Minawi and the Sudanese government
A twist was, however, added to the drama at the signing when towards the end of the ceremony, a splinter group from the Abdulwaheed Al-Nur faction of the SLM led by Dr Abdulrahman Musa opted out of the peace deal
The signing was delayed by mediators led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, African Union chairman, Sasso Nguesso, American Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick, UK Minister for International Development Hilary Benn, representatives of Canada, EU, France, Arab League, UN, Netherlands, Norway, Egypt, Italy and Libya as they tried to get the two factions led by Al-Nur and the Justice and Equity Movement (JEM) to sign the dotted lines.
The rebel factional movements posted no deal, alleging that the agreement was skewed in favour of the Sudanese government and therefore does not protect their interests.()
President Obasanjo, as chairman of the negotiations made personal commitments and efforts, holding consultations and presiding over group meetings geared towards getting a deal signed
He warned that unless there is the "right spirit, the right attitude and the right disposition, this document will not be worth the paper it is written. This is what should guide the implementation of this agreement. Those who feel unable to sign today, we will continue to appeal to them, to address them to see reason why they need to sign on behalf of the people they claim to lead." ()
Full text: http://allafrica.com/stories/200605070033.html
DIVISIONS CAST ASIDE IN CRY FOR DARFUR; MALL RALLY HIGHLIGHTS GROWING CONCERN
The Washington Post
By Sudarsan Raghavan
1 May 2006 Monday
Clutching signs that read "Never Again," thousands of protesters from across religious and political divides descended on the Mall yesterday along with celebrities and politicians to urge President Bush to take stronger measures to end the violence in Sudan's Darfur region that the United States has labeled genocide.
They wore skullcaps, turbans, headscarves, yarmulkes, baseball hats and bandanas. There were pastors, rabbis, imams, youths from churches and youths from synagogues. They cried out phrases in Arabic and held signs in Hebrew. But on this day, they said, they didn't come out as Jews or Muslims, Christians or Sikhs, Republicans or Democrats.
They came out as one, they said, to demand that the Bush administration place additional sanctions on Sudan and push harder for a multinational peacekeeping force to be sent to Darfur.
By Washington standards, where protests often draw more than 100,000 people, yesterday's rally -- estimated by organizers at between 10,000 and 15,000 -- was not huge. Yet the Rally to Stop Genocide appeared to be distinctive for being one of the more diverse rallies the capital has seen in years. Most demonstrations attract fairly homogenous crowds, who often share political, religious and ethnic makeup
Speaking later before the crowd, Sen. Barack Obama (D-Ill.) said: "Paralysis in the face of genocide is wrong. . . . If we care, the world will care."
Lawrence B. Mogga, a former Sudanese diplomat who was forced to flee his country, stared at the crowd from his perch backstage and said: "I have never seen this type of organizational arrangement. I think this is the first of its kind."
Yesterday's rally, along with protests planned in 17 other cities, was the largest public outcry for Darfur since the conflict began three years ago. It underscores growing public support across the nation to end the bloodshed
In recent months, universities, states and municipalities have divested some of their investments from companies doing business with Sudan. Last month, Providence, R.I., became the first city to stop investing in Sudan. There are divestment campaigns underway at the University of Maryland and the University of Virginia. And Maryland is considering a formal request by Lt. Gov. Michael S. Steele (R) to have the state's pension plan divest billions of dollars from firms with ties to Sudan.
.The speakers' podium was thick with the sweep of history, as survivors of the Holocaust, the Rwandan genocide and the ethnic conflict in Bosnia drew parallels to Darfur. ()
Staff writers Lisa Rein, Karlyn Barker, Hamil R. Harris and Aruna Jain contributed to this report.
(Full text unavailable)
Related article: http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/1yr_arc_Articles.asp?Article=142960&Sn=COMM&IssueID=29049&date=5-8-2006
U.N. Security Council affirms international responsibility to protect civilians from genocide
The Associated Press
By Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press Writer
29 April 2006
The U.N. Security Council affirmed for the first time Friday that the international community has a responsibility to protect civilians from genocide, war crimes and ethnic cleansing when national governments fail to do so.
A resolution was unanimously approved by the 15-nation council
Britain's U.N. Ambassador Emry Jones Parry, who has been pressing for adoption of the resolution since November, said he was pleased that the Security Council had for the first time referred to the concept of the responsibility to protect in a resolution
Security Council resolutions are legally binding so the inclusion of the international community's responsibility to protect civilians from atrocities gives the world leaders' agreement added clout.
Oxfam International called it a historic resolution and an important moment for the protection of millions of people caught in violent and deadly conflicts.
"The Security Council has today said that in the 21st century, the world will not tolerate genocide or crimes against humanity," said Nicola Reindorp, who heads Oxfam's New York office. "It is a landmark resolution that, if implemented effectively, should save countless lives."
At the September meeting, the 191 U.N. member states agreed that when national governments cannot protect their citizens from crimes against humanity and similar atrocities, the international community has a responsibility to step in and protect civilians being targeted.
The resolution adopted Friday reaffirms the paragraphs in the final summit document adopted by world leaders "regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity."
Russia, China and Algeria initially opposed the inclusion of collective responsibility when the resolution was first proposed last year. But Algeria's two-year term on the Security Council ended on Dec. 31 and supporters were able to overcome the objections of Moscow and Beijing, diplomats said, speaking on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to speak publicly on the negotiations...
Full text: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/28/AR2006042801833.html
U.N. Talks But Won't Act On Genocide, Say Activists
Inter Press Service (Johannesburg)
By Thalif Deen
28 April 2006, post 1 May 2006
The 15-member U.N. Security Council, which has shown a reluctance to penalise those accused of war crimes in conflict-ridden Darfur in Sudan, unanimously adopted a resolution Friday to protect civilians in armed conflicts.
The resolution, which condemns the deliberate targeting of civilians, was a follow-up to an agreement reached by over 150 world leaders at last September's U.N. summit in New York.
The international charity Oxfam described the resolution as "historic", pointing out that if it is implemented effectively, "it should save countless lives." ()
As with all Security Council resolutions, [Nicola Reindorp, head of Oxfam International's New York Office] pointed out, "This resolution will only protect people if U.N. member states turn their words into actions."
Ann-Louise Colgan, director for policy analysis and communications at the Washington-based Africa Action, said Friday's resolution affirming the international responsibility to protect