UN References to R2P on Mission
12 July 2006
On 16 May, the Security Council passed Resolution 1679, calling for the replacement of African Union peacekeepers with a larger UN peacekeeping force. In response, the Security Council organized a high-level mission to Sudan to pressure the government to accept an international force. The mission, which began on June 4 and ended on June 10, included a meeting at the African Union Headquarters in Addis Abba and a stopover in Chad. In addition to persuading Khartoum to accept UN peacekeepers, the Terms of Reference (TOR) for the mission included support for the rapid implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), unhindered access for humanitarian and relief organizations in Sudan, and the reduction of tensions between Chad and Sudan.
The original TOR proposed for the mission included a reference to esponsibility to Protect. According to several of our sources, however, we learned that there was significant opposition by several governments to its inclusion in the final document. The efforts of the detractors prevailed and the reference was ultimately removed. The R2P reference taken out was as follows:
Highlight the 2005 United Nations World Summit outcome document which notes that each individual State has the responsibility to protect its populations and that the international community should, as appropriate, encourage and help States to exercise this responsibility.
On 22 June, the Security Council released their final report on the trip. The mission, while continuously emphasizing its espect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sudan was unsuccessful in convincing Khartoum to accept a UN force. Notable, however, is that in the final report, the Security Council mission made a specific mention of esponsibility to Protect calling on the Khartoum governments R2P obligation:
The United Nations country team in El Fasher and NGOs in both Khartoum and El Fasher spoke of the deteriorating security situation in Darfur, the massive problems concerning the protection of civilians, and the need to send a strong message to the Government concerning its responsibility to protect its citizens in the region and across the country.
Please click here for the final terms of reference and the full text of the final report.