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January Violence continues, and thousands of Darfur refugees are crammed into camps in eastern Chad

February Bush calls for a UN peacekeeping force to be backed up by NATO troops, but Sudanese government refuses

Early-April Rebels charge the capital of Chad, Ndjamena. President of Chad blames Sudan for supporting them, and breaks off diplomatic relations

25 April UN Security Council imposes sanctions on four individuals considered a threat to Darfur; UN Security Council President issues a presidential statement on Darfur

28 April UN Security Council adopts Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict resolution, including an endorsement of the Responsibility to Protec.
More Information and the resolution:
Security Council Resolution 1674

28 April World Food Programme announces it will cut food rations to refugees in half

01 May Day of protests around the world for action in Darfur

06 May Sudanese Government and Sudanese Liberation Movement sign peace-agreement in Abuja

09 May Darfur refugees riot and call on the UN to intervene

11 May United States Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice addresses the UN Security Council on Darfur, including a reference to Responsibility to Protect; presents draft resolution on Darfur under Chapter VII of the UN Charter

11 May UN considers Chad protection force

16 May UN Security Council passes resolution on Darfur under Chapter VII

22 May Sudan elcomes UN envoys (Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, and Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hdi Annabi) dispatched to assess the situation in Darfur for UN peacekeepers

05 June Security Council visits Sudan and pressures government to accept international force

13 June Joint UN-AU team arrives in Darfur to assess the situation in preparation for an international force

15 June ICC reports evidence of large-scale massacres in Darfur to Security Council

18 June Denmark will contribute troops in Darfur if asked by the UN

Related Articles (in reverse chronological order)

1. Denmark backs transition to UN peacekeeping force in Darfur
UN News Service
18 June 2006

As an assessment team continues to hold discussions in Sudan on a possible transition from the current African Union mission in Darfur to a United Nations operation there, the Prime Minister of Denmark today told reporters following a meeting with Secretary-General Kofi Annan that his country would back a UN force in the vast, strife-torn region.

enmark supports a UN takeover of the peacekeeping mission in Sudan, said Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, adding that the Government would ositively consider a military contribution if the UN requests so. ()

Asked about the status of that team, the Secretary-General said its work is continuing. hope the Government will agree to cooperate and support the force, because we are really going there to help the Government and to help the people of Sudan, he said. n the meantime, we are approaching governments informally but we will firm up that request once we have the agreement from the Sudanese Government and the Security Council has adopted the resolution authorizing a peacekeeping force in Darfur.
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2. Sudan: ICC Reports Evidence of Large-Scale Massacres
Africa News from Inter Press Service
15 June 2006

The chief prosecutor of the Hague-based International Criminal Court (ICC) told the U.N. Security Council Wednesday that investigators have uncovered evidence of "large-scale massacres" in Darfur, Sudan, but stopped short of labeling the situation there "genocide".

Attacks on villages and refugee camps by Khartoum-backed Arab militias, or Janjaweed, have killed as many as 400,000 people over the past three years, and left another 700,000 homeless and without access to humanitarian relief.

In his third report to the Security Council since the case was referred to the ICC in March 2005, Prosecutor Louis Moreno-Ocampo said that the court's investigative team has compiled a Darfur Crime Database for the period October 2002 to May 2006, which shows that the violence began escalating in October 2002 and peaked from April 2003 to April 2005. ()

Although some of the massacres appear to have been carried out with "genocidal intent", he said, the issue is still being investigated and the prosecutor's office will not characterise the crimes until a full probe has been conducted.

He also noted that investigators are hampered by the precarious security situation in the countryside, and must be able to ensure that witnesses are able to testify without fear of reprisals. Moreover, many rape victims may opt to remain silent at the risk of being ostracised and rebuked, he said. ()

As a result, the ICC established a temporary office in eastern Chad where many displaced Darfur residents had sought refuge. However, fighting between rebel groups and the Chadian government effectively shut down the ICC's activities there in April The eastern Chad operations are currently still suspended.

The other challenge that could severely interfere with the prosecutor's pursuit of justice will be the court's ability to wield its jurisdiction, which depends in large part on how much cooperation the court gets from the Sudanese government.

Since Ocampo's formal announcement of the ICC investigation, the government of Sudan has established various courts and commissions to conduct its own probe of the Darfur atrocities, a move that has drawn criticism from groups like Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International. Under its statute, the ICC is not allowed to explore a case once the Sudanese government has begun investigating or prosecuting the same charges.

The Sudanese government established the Special Criminal Court on the Events in Darfur (SCCED), two specialised courts, and other institutions that provide support to those courts, including the Judicial Investigations Committee, the Special Prosecutions Commissions, the National Commission of Inquiry and the Committees Against Rape. ()

News Report, told IPS. "However, there are statutes within the ICC's charter that would allow it jurisdiction in Darfur, if the U.N. had the political will to do so."

"While China and Russia have been blocking any U.N. action on Darfur, by working to weaken any resolutions that emerge from the Security Council on the subject, the U.S.'s aversion to the ICC has also been a factor in preventing the ICC from gaining a foothold in Sudan," Wolfe said.()
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UN News
13 June 2006

A joint United Nations-African Union (AU) team arrived in Darfur today on a mission to strengthen an AU monitoring force already there and prepare for its possible transition to a full-fledged UN peacekeeping operation even as a new attack was reported against humanitarian workers trying to ease the suffering in the strife-torn Sudanese region. ()

The joint UN-AU mission, led by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guhenno, will meet with local regional leaders, representatives of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and the AU Mission in Sudan (AMIS), after holding wide-ranging consultations in Khartoum, Sudans capital, with Government officials.

UN Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland has warned that it is vital that AMIS receive a more robust mandate to protect the civilian population and humanitarian workers, and that its force be at least double its current strength of 7,000.

While the Government has agreed to the deployment of the assessment team, it has not yet agreed to a transition to a UN operation.

The attack on the UNHCR post came in an area about 95 kilometres south of the West Darfur capital of El Geneina, which had previously been calm. In mid-May, UNHCR started moving some 5,000C Chadian refugees, who had taken refuge there after fleeing military and bandit activity along the border between Chad and Sudan
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Associated Press
By Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press Writer
5 June 2006

The U.N. Security Council arrived in a wary Sudan late Monday with assurances that the United Nations has no intention of taking over the country and sees the government as a partner in promoting peace.
The government has been very reluctant to allow a U.N. peacekeeping force to take over from the 7,000-strong African Union force in conflict-wracked Darfur that has largely been unable to stop the violence there. Fears of U.N. intervention were fueled last month when a council resolution to spur planning for a handover was adopted under Chapter 7 of the U.N. Charter, which allows military action. ()
The AU force in Darfur now has been temporarily charged with helping implement a May 25 peace deal between the Sudanese government and the main rebel group there. In March, the African Union's Peace and Security Council decided in principle to keep the AU force in Darfur until Sept. 30, when the U.N. would then take control. The transfer would require approval from the U.N. Security Council.
But the assessment had been delayed because Sudan refused to grant visas for the mission. The deadlock was broken after a visit by a top United Nations envoy last week. ()
Jones Parry said the Security Council will be trying to get the Sudanese government's agreement for a U.N. peacekeeping mission in Darfur to take over from the African Union late this year or early next year and to beef up the AU force in the interim so it can more effectively monitor the Darfur peace agreement. ()
The U.N. is involved in Sudan "because of the responsibility of the international community to alleviate hardship, to avoid the atrocities," Jones Parry said. ()
An editorial Monday in the independent opposition paper Rae Al Shaab called the Security Council mission "a visit by an unwelcome guest."
"The visit of the council is meant to be a full international siege, a load on the chest of the Sudanese people and a continuation of the pressure to dispatch yet more foreign troops to Darfur, nothing else, nothing more," Rae Al Shaab said, calling the council "a tool used by some superpowers to serve their own ends." ()
The council also wants to assure the government of its "full respect for the territorial integrity of Sudan as a country," [Jones Parry] said. "We see the government of Sudan as a partner in what is now unfolding ... and the government of Sudan has an opportunity to move things in the right direction because of the actions it's taken."
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UN News Service
22 May 2006

The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) said the countrys Government welcomed the upcoming visit of two UN envoys, who are headed to Khartoum for talks on a planned UN force to take over from the African Union operation following a peace agreement earlier this month

A UN spokesman in New York said today that the Sudanese Government has still not consented to the deployment of an assessment team to Darfur.

The Secretary-Generals Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hdi Annabi, were dispatched to the Sudanese capital for intensified talks on the issue after the Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution on 16 May under Chapter VII of the Charter, which allows for enforcement measures, calling for such a team to be deployed within a week.()

Meanwhile, the Secretary-Generals Special Representative for Sudan, Jan Pronk, pressed local government and community leaders to close their ranks behind the two-week-old pact during a recent trip to Darfur

Mr. Pronk agreed to hold regular meetings between UNMIS and local government leaders in West Darfur, as part of ongoing efforts to explain the Darfur Peace Agreement. ()

During a series of similar gatherings, almost all internally displaced persons (IDPs) pleaded to Mr. Pronk for immediate protection by UN peacekeeping forces and for more food rations and other relief supplies. Women and children all echoed the demands of male IDPs for rapid protection by UN troops against attacks by the Janjaweed militia and for better foodstuff and other necessities
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6. Security Council Unanimously Adopts Resolution Paving Way for UN Force in Darfur
UN News Service

16 May 2006

The Security Council unanimously adopt[ed] a resolution calling for the deployment on the ground of a joint UN-Africa Union (AU) assessment team within one week to lay the groundwork for [a robust United Nations peacekeeping force in Sudan's war-torn Darfur region], which would take over from the AU mission (AMIS) now monitoring the area.

The Council called on all parties to the Darfur Peace Agreement signed earlier this month by the Sudanese Government and the largest rebel force in the region to "work with the African Union, the United Nations, regional and international organizations and Member States to accelerate the transition to a United Nations operation."

The resolution also called on those rebel groups that have not yet signed the Agreement to do so without delay.

Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which allows for enforcement measures, the resolution expressed the Council's intention to consider a travel ban and assets freeze against any individual or group that violates or blocks implementation of the Agreement

Under the resolution, Secretary-General Kofi Annan would submit recommendations to the Council within one week of the assessment team's return on all relevant issues, including force requirements and cost estimates, for a UN operation. ()

[Mr. Annan's Special Representative for Sudan, Jan] Pronk, will leave tomorrow for Darfur to continue his efforts to widen the circle of support for the pact

During his three-day visit, Mr. Pronk will meet AMIS commanders, as well as the Wali, or governor, of West Darfur and local representatives of civil society and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
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Read the Security Council Resolution here: Security Council Resolution 1679

11 May 2006

The U.S. Department of State issued the following transcript of remarks by the U.S. Secretary of State:

SECRETARY RICE: Mr. Secretary General, Mr. President, fellow Ministers, members of the Security Council, I would like to thank all of you for responding to the call for this meeting and convening a special session of this body on such short notice. The Darfur Peace Agreement, signed just days ago in Abuja, represents an historic opportunity for the people of Darfur to secure real peace and lasting justice. The United Nations has a vital role to play at this hopeful moment and the United States urges the Security Council to quickly pass the resolution that we circulated yesterday.

I have visited Darfur. I have seen the unspeakable suffering The United States has characterized this wanton campaign of violence as genocide and yesterday President Bush reaffirmed that judgment.

With the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement, we are now - we really have an opportunity to help end the long nightmare that has befallen the people of Darfur. The source of the conflict in Darfur is a political problem, as old as Sudan itself. Historically, the Government of Khartoum has not been able to rule all of its citizens justly

In this way, the Darfur agreement is a worthy complement to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
The Darfur Peace Agreement is the foundation on which to begin building a future of freedom, security and opportunity for the people of Darfur. Each of the parties has pledged to cooperate in meeting its unique and important obligations, from disarming and demobilizing militias, to building an inclusive political process, to sharing wealth and generation development in Darfur.

Most importantly, the agreement sets out a path that can return the people of Darfur to their homes. It is now vital for all of Sudan's neighbors to support this peace agreement as well. In addition, the international community must insist that all parties remain accountable and that the agreement is completely and verifiably implemented. It is now more important than ever to have a strong United Nations effort to ensure that the agreement's detailed timelines are monitored and enforced. The accord clearly states that neutral peacekeepers have an essential role to play in this process.

This is an extremely difficult job and the AU troops have performed admirably. Recognizing this, the African Union expressed its desire on March 10th to transition its mission in Sudan to a larger UN-led force that can do more to protect the people of Darfur.

Just as UN peacekeepers play a central role in helping to implement the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between North and South, we now need a UN peacekeeping force to help implement the Darfur peace agreement ()
Today, I call upon all nations to do their part to help the World Food Program feed and care for the people of Darfur

This is a time of testing for the international community, especially for the United Nations. The plight of the people of Darfur stirs the conscience of all human beingsThis is a challenge for the entire community of nations and it is one that cannot be taken lightly.

If the idea of an international community is to mean anything, if the founding principles of the United Nations are to be more than just dreams, and if the notion of our responsibility to protect the weakest and the most powerless among us is ever to be more than just an empty promise, then the Security Council must act

Thank you very much, Mr. President.
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11 May 2006

The UN wants to raise a force to protect civilians and refugees in Chad from attacks by armed groups spilling over from Darfur, an official has said.

Kingsley Amaning, humanitarian co-ordinator for the UN in Chad, said: "We have a seriously deteriorating security situation in Chad and the government's capacity is also diminishing in terms of security response.

"Therefore, along with the [Chadian] government, we are looking at the possibility of putting in place an expatriate, international force that will support government efforts to provide security in the areas where we are operating." ()

Chad army ineffective
"It's very clear that Chad has limitations with its present armed forces being small and its police force being even smaller, and that's why ... we are looking at other methods to try to protect the civilian, refugee and displaced populations," Egeland said. ()
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The New York Times
By Lydia Polgreen
9 May 2006

An African Union interpreter was hacked to death on Monday in this vast, squalid camp by a mob of angry demonstrators within hours of a visit from the top United Nations aid official.

The United Nations evacuated aid workers and journalists from the camp when a huge demonstration calling for rapid international intervention in Darfur turned violent.

The protesters tried to stab a longtime Oxfam worker they suspected of being a spy for the Sudanese government, and then set upon an African Union compound where unarmed police officers and a Sudanese interpreter had barricaded themselves. The outpost was soon overrun and looted, and the interpreter killed.

The violence underscored the tenuousness of the peace deal reached last week in Nigeria by the government and the main rebel faction, and also illustrated the barely contained tensions in enormous camps where more than two million refugees live.

The demonstrators were demanding that a United Nations force replace the African Union soldiers assigned to protect civilians here. Protesters at another camp, Zallingei, also attacked an African Union outpost on Monday, but no one was killed.

The chaos raised questions about the ability of the African Union force to oversee this critical period between the signing of the peace agreement, which it will have to enforce, and the arrival of a much larger United Nations force, which is many months away.

The 7,000-member African Union force is caught in an "impossible squeeze, really, between the exploding expectations of the civilian population of security, which they have been denied for so long, and on the other side the simple limitations of their capacity," Mr. Egeland said.
If conditions do not improve soon, Mr. Egeland said, "Kalma is a powder keg."
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This Day (Lagos)
By Josephine Lohor
6 May 2006
After two years and one month of negotiations in the nation's capital, Abuja, a peace deal has finally been signed between the largest rebel movement - the Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM) - A faction led by Minni Minawi and the Sudanese government

A twist was, however, added to the drama at the signing when towards the end of the ceremony, a splinter group from the Abdulwaheed Al-Nur faction of the SLM led by Dr Abdulrahman Musa opted out of the peace deal

The signing was delayed by mediators led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, African Union chairman, Sasso Nguesso, American Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick, UK Minister for International Development Hilary Benn, representatives of Canada, EU, France, Arab League, UN, Netherlands, Norway, Egypt, Italy and Libya as they tried to get the two factions led by Al-Nur and the Justice and Equity Movement (JEM) to sign the dotted lines.

The rebel factional movements posted no deal, alleging that the agreement was skewed in favour of the Sudanese government and therefore does not protect their interests.()

President Obasanjo, as chairman of the negotiations made personal commitments and efforts, holding consultations and presiding over group meetings geared towards getting a deal signed

He warned that unless there is the "right spirit, the right attitude and the right disposition, this document will not be worth the paper it is written. This is what should guide the implementation of this agreement. Those who feel unable to sign today, we will continue to appeal to them, to address them to see reason why they need to sign on behalf of the people they claim to lead." ()
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The Washington Post
By Sudarsan Raghavan
1 May 2006 Monday

Clutching signs that read "Never Again," thousands of protesters from across religious and political divides descended on the Mall yesterday along with celebrities and politicians to urge President Bush to take stronger measures to end the violence in Sudan's Darfur region that the United States has labeled genocide.

They wore skullcaps, turbans, headscarves, yarmulkes, baseball hats and bandanas. There were pastors, rabbis, imams, youths from churches and youths from synagogues. They cried out phrases in Arabic and held signs in Hebrew. But on this day, they said, they didn't come out as Jews or Muslims, Christians or Sikhs, Republicans or Democrats.

They came out as one, they said, to demand that the Bush administration place additional sanctions on Sudan and push harder for a multinational peacekeeping force to be sent to Darfur.

By Washington standards, where protests often draw more than 100,000 people, yesterday's rally -- estimated by organizers at between 10,000 and 15,000 -- was not huge. Yet the Rally to Stop Genocide appeared to be distinctive for being one of the more diverse rallies the capital has seen in years. Most demonstrations attract fairly homogenous crowds, who often share political, religious and ethnic makeup

Speaking later before the crowd, Sen. Barack Obama (D-Ill.) said: "Paralysis in the face of genocide is wrong. . . . If we care, the world will care."

Lawrence B. Mogga, a former Sudanese diplomat who was forced to flee his country, stared at the crowd from his perch backstage and said: "I have never seen this type of organizational arrangement. I think this is the first of its kind."

Yesterday's rally, along with protests planned in 17 other cities, was the largest public outcry for Darfur since the conflict began three years ago. It underscores growing public support across the nation to end the bloodshed

In recent months, universities, states and municipalities have divested some of their investments from companies doing business with Sudan. Last month, Providence, R.I., became the first city to stop investing in Sudan. There are divestment campaigns underway at the University of Maryland and the University of Virginia. And Maryland is considering a formal request by Lt. Gov. Michael S. Steele (R) to have the state's pension plan divest billions of dollars from firms with ties to Sudan.

.The speakers' podium was thick with the sweep of history, as survivors of the Holocaust, the Rwandan genocide and the ethnic conflict in Bosnia drew parallels to Darfur. ()
Staff writers Lisa Rein, Karlyn Barker, Hamil R. Harris and Aruna Jain contributed to this report.
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12. U.N. Security Council affirms international responsibility to protect civilians from genocide
The Associated Press
By Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press Writer
29 April 2006

The U.N. Security Council affirmed for the first time Friday that the international community has a responsibility to protect civilians from genocide, war crimes and ethnic cleansing when national governments fail to do so.

A resolution was unanimously approved by the 15-nation council

Britain's U.N. Ambassador Emry Jones Parry, who has been pressing for adoption of the resolution since November, said he was pleased that the Security Council had for the first time referred to the concept of the responsibility to protect in a resolution

Security Council resolutions are legally binding so the inclusion of the international community's responsibility to protect civilians from atrocities gives the world leaders' agreement added clout.

Oxfam International called it a historic resolution and an important moment for the protection of millions of people caught in violent and deadly conflicts.

"The Security Council has today said that in the 21st century, the world will not tolerate genocide or crimes against humanity," said Nicola Reindorp, who heads Oxfam's New York office. "It is a landmark resolution that, if implemented effectively, should save countless lives."

At the September meeting, the 191 U.N. member states agreed that when national governments cannot protect their citizens from crimes against humanity and similar atrocities, the international community has a responsibility to step in and protect civilians being targeted.

The resolution adopted Friday reaffirms the paragraphs in the final summit document adopted by world leaders "regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity."

Russia, China and Algeria initially opposed the inclusion of collective responsibility when the resolution was first proposed last year. But Algeria's two-year term on the Security Council ended on Dec. 31 and supporters were able to overcome the objections of Moscow and Beijing, diplomats said, speaking on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to speak publicly on the negotiations...
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13. U.N. Talks But Won't Act On Genocide, Say Activists
Inter Press Service (Johannesburg)
By Thalif Deen
28 April 2006, post 1 May 2006

The 15-member U.N. Security Council, which has shown a reluctance to penalise those accused of war crimes in conflict-ridden Darfur in Sudan, unanimously adopted a resolution Friday to protect civilians in armed conflicts.

The resolution, which condemns the deliberate targeting of civilians, was a follow-up to an agreement reached by over 150 world leaders at last September's U.N. summit in New York.
The international charity Oxfam described the resolution as "historic", pointing out that if it is implemented effectively, "it should save countless lives." ()

As with all Security Council resolutions, [Nicola Reindorp, head of Oxfam International's New York Office] pointed out, "This resolution will only protect people if U.N. member states turn their words into actions."

Ann-Louise Colgan, director for policy analysis and communications at the Washington-based Africa Action, said Friday's resolution affirming the international responsibility to protect civilians from genocide and other such crimes "marks an important commitment to stand up for vulnerable people in conflict situations around the world".

"But this principle must be put into practice in Darfur, Sudan, if it is to have real credibility and impact," Colgan told IPS.

As crimes against humanity continue to be perpetrated against the people of Darfur, the international community must assert its responsibility to protect these people and must deploy a U.N. peacekeeping force to the region as soon as possible, she added

But the Council has so far been slow to take action -- primarily because of resistance by two veto-wielding permanent members, namely Russia and China, who claim they do not want to jeopardise the current peace negotiations.

In a statement issued Friday, Oxfam said this was the first resolution approved by the Security Council to include the World Summit agreement on "the collective responsibility to protect".

The commitment establishes a joint understanding among all governments on their responsibilities for the protection of civilians at the national and international level, Oxfam added.

"The Summit agreement and Security Council resolution affirm that national governments have the primary responsibility to protect their civilians from genocide, crimes against humanity and other similar atrocities," the statement said.

Oxfam also said that the international community has the obligation to support these efforts and prevent such crimes, and if national governments fail to protect their people, the international community must act.

According to the resolution, "the deliberate targeting of civilians and other protected persons, and the commission of systematic, flagrant and widespread violations of international humanitarian and human rights law in situations of armed conflict, may constitute a threat to international peace and security".

And the Security Council reaffirms "its readiness to consider such situations and, where necessary, to adopt appropriate steps".()
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14. Huge donor shortfall forces drastic food cuts for millions of Sudanese UN
UN News Service
28 April 2006

Despite the horrific suffering of more than 6 million vulnerable people across Sudan, a huge shortfall in requested funds has forced the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to make drastic cuts in food rations as from May, the agency announced today. ()
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UN News Service
25 April 2006

[The] United Nations Security Council today urged that the parties reach a peace accord by the end of this month and imposed sanctions against four individuals considered a threat to the region.

restrictions were placed on the assets and international travel of Major General Gaffar Mohamed Elhassan, Commander of the Western Military Region for the Sudanese Air Force.

The measures were also directed at Adam Yacub Shant, Commander of the Sudanese Liberation Army rebel group; Gabril Abdul Kareem Badri, the Field Commander of another rebel group, the National Movement for Reform; and Sheikh Musa Hilal, the Paramount Chief of the Jalul Tribe in North Darfur.

In a separate statement read out by the Council's April President, Wang Guangya of China, the body urged that the talks taking place in Abuja, Nigeria meet the African Union's 30 April deadline for a peace deal for Darfur.

In December, 2005, the Council imposed an arms embargo on Sudan and paved the way for targeted sanctions against individuals. ()

Today, the representatives of the three countries that abstained from voting on sanctions China, the Russian Federation and Qatar said that the measures would have a negative impact on the Abuja peace negotiations

In a third action on the region today, the Council echoed Secretary-General Kofi Annan's previously expressed deep concerns over the instability along Chad's border with Sudan and over the situation of refugees from Darfur and the Central African Republic as well as internally displaced persons in Chad...
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