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In Congo, a Little Fighting Brings a Lot of Fear
The New York Times
Jeffery Gettleman
2 November 2008

This vast linchpin of a country at the green heart of the continent, covering 905,000 square miles and bordering nine nations, never goes down alone.

When the Congolese state began to collapse in 1996, it set off a regional war. When it imploded again in 1998, it dragged in armies from a half-dozen other African countries. The two wars and the mayhem since have killed possibly five million people, a death toll that human rights groups say is the worst related to any conflict since World War II.

The worry now is that Congo is on the brink again, with neighbors poised to jump in, which is why the relatively small-scale bush fighting last week attracted some of the most intense diplomatic activity Congo has seen in years. The French foreign minister, the British foreign minister, top United Nations diplomats and the State Departments highest official for Africa all jetted in to the decrepit but important lakeside city of Goma. ()

The rebel victory laid bare the fecklessness of the Congolese government, two years after the most expensive, foreign-financed election in African history, despite the muscle of the largest United Nations peacekeeping mission, with 17,000 troops in the country.

Perhaps even more alarming was the performance of that mission. Not only were the peacekeepers unable to stop the rebels advance the rebels have already turned a captured United Nations base into an impromptu bush gym but they were unable to protect civilians, which is their mandate.

On Wednesday night, as the rebels encircled Goma, rogue government soldiers plundered, raped and killed in their retreat from the town. This same predatory behavior happened in the 1990s, when Congo was in a similar state of simmering dysfunction.

On Thursday, a family in Goma sat in a small, bare room, staring at the body of a 17-year-old boy, Merci. He was forced at gunpoint to load everything from their home into an army truck, family members and neighbors said. As a parting gesture, before they raced out of town, the government soldiers shot Merci in the back. There were no peacekeepers around, even though a large United Nations base is located a mile or two from Mercis home. ()

John Prendergast, a founder of the Washington-based Enough Project, which campaigns against genocide, said: t is remarkable that 14 years after the genocide in Rwanda, U.N. peacekeeping remains as ineffectual at protecting civilians as it was then. This, despite all the rhetoric about the responsibility to protect and never again. Empty slogans for the people of Central Africa.r
Alan Doss, the head of the United Nations mission in Congo, said it had been very difficult to defend the perimeter of Goma and at the same time police the streets with a relatively small force of 900 Goma based peacekeepers. ere certainly stretched, he said. heres only so much we can do.r
The European Union is mulling over the idea of sending more troops. But right now, the emphasis seems to be on forging a durable political settlement with the rebels. The trick is that eastern Congo has always been a headache to rule. And the rebels based in the thickly forested hills around here seem stronger than ever. They are led by a charismatic troublemaker, Laurent Nkunda, who commands a well-trained, well-equipped guerrilla army from an abandoned Belgian farmhouse in the jungle. He is an ethnic Tutsi, and Congolese officials have painted Mr. Nkunda, a renegade general, as a pawn of Tutsi-led Rwanda next door.

Though it is unclear how actively Rwanda might be supporting Mr. Nkunda, Rwandan meddling here would be far from unprecedented. Congo has suffered a long history of exploitation, going back to the Belgian colonial times. Rebel groups and foreign forces have annexed large swaths of the country to extract gold, diamonds, tin and timber. At times, too, the Congolese government has invited its neighbors in, trying to find defenders at critical moments. ()

Congo analysts say that Mr. Nkunda may have some legitimate political goals and Congolese ones at that. For starters, he seems determined to eliminate the Hutu death squads who participated in the massacre of 800,000 people in Rwanda in 1994 and then fled into Congo, where they continue to brutalize with impunity. The Congolese government has promised to disarm the squads. But the rebels and many Western diplomats say the government is actually giving the Hutu death squads guns.
he Congolese Army is working hand in hand with these killers, said Babu Amani, a spokesman for the rebels.

The rebels want to play a bigger role in governing eastern Congo and even possibly to carve the territory into ethnic fiefs. () A summit meeting has now been called between Rwanda and Congo. Aid organizations are urging the United States to put more pressure on Rwanda, its ally, to rein in Mr. Nkunda. Diplomats are shuttling between Congo and Rwanda, trying to get the two sides to focus on peace treaties they have already signed, so another regional war does not break out.

here will be a summit, Professor Vlassenroot said. nd there will be a nice document coming out of it. But it wont change anything. What Congo needs, he said, is a true change of culture that would end the long tradition of corruption and criminally inept government and the attendant rebellions. Given the decades of unending crisis here, no one sees that happening anytime soon.



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